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Biology

Department Chair
Eileen Thatcher

Faculty
James L. Christmann, Daniel E. Crocker,
J. Hall Cushman, Nicholas R. Geist,
Derek J. Girman, Bernie Goldstein,
*David F. Hanes, *Chris K. Kjeldsen,
*Philip T. Northen, Murali C. Pillai,
Nathan E. Rank, Judy A. Sakanari, Eileen Thatcher, Richard Whitkus
*Faculty Early Retirement Program Secondary Education Teaching Credential Preparation in Life Science / Sample Four-Year Program for Bachelor's Degree in Biology / Bachelor of Arts in Biology / Bachelor of Science in Biology / Minor or Master of Arts in Biology / Individual Class Descriptions


Programs offered
Bachelor of Arts in Biology
Bachelor of Science in Biology
Master of Arts in Biology
Minor in Biology
Teaching Credential Preparation


Biology is the study of life in all its forms. Such study may emphasize particular life forms, such as insects in entomology, or bacteria in bacteriology; particular levels of organization, such as macromolecules in molecular biology, organs and organ systems in animal physiology, or ecosystems in ecology; or techniques, such as DNA sequencing and statistics.

The Department of Biology offers undergraduates two broadly based bachelor?s degree programs, within which are opportunities for selecting a special concentration. The department also offers a Master of Arts degree in biology. A congenial atmosphere allows students to develop a close relationship with peers, graduate students, and faculty. An emphasis is placed on laboratory and field courses, to give students practical experience, and on participation in research.

Laboratory courses are designed to focus on structure, development, physiology, microbiology, genetics and DNA recombination. Laboratory instruction provides students with hands-on opportunities with physiological equipment, ultracentrifugation, PCR, electrophoresis, light microscopy, immunofluorescence microscopy and microbiological techniques. Excellent laboratory and greenhouse facilities, such as the Raymond Burr Greenhouse and orchid collection, exist for maintaining live material for classroom use and research. A radioisotope laboratory is also available.

Field courses draw upon an unparalleled diversity of habitats?streams, lakes, estuaries, bays, open coasts, marshes, grasslands, vernal pools, oak woodlands, redwood groves, thermal springs and geothermal steam fields ? all in close proximity to the campus. In addition, the department maintains extensive museum collections of local plants (North Coast Herbarium of California), algae, fungi, invertebrates (including insects) and vertebrates. A Boston Whaler is also available for aquatic research and teaching.

Biology graduates are prepared to enter the job market in a variety of careers, including government agencies, park service, biological research, teaching, and medical technology. Students seeking a teaching credential may elect biology as their major within the teaching credential preparation program in science (see page 73). Graduates from the department have an outstanding record of acceptance in advanced degree programs at technical, dental, veterinary, medical and graduate schools, as well as in fifth-year hospital traineeships in medical technology.

The biology curriculum, supported by physical sciences and mathematics, is designed to provide students with a strong background in the principles of biology and rigorous upper-division instruction. This combination of breadth and in-depth instruction allows students to develop the intellectual foundations and the skills necessary to deal with the specific biological concerns of today and the flexibility to meet the needs of the profession. From this base, any of the following concentrations may be pursued. Biology Degree Concentrations

Most students are well served by the basic B.A. plan, without a concentration. Some however, select one of the following concentrations for a B.A. or B.S. degree. These degrees share a common lower-division core, hence beginning students need not select a plan immediately. The B.A. program leaves more flexibility for electives and a minor. The B.S. requires more physical science, mathematics, and total units. Upon completion of specified course work, a concentration will be designated on the transcript and diploma. Students should contact the department for specific requirements.
Bachelor of Arts Bachelor of Science
Botany Aquatic Biology
Marine Biology Molecular and Cell Biology
Microbiology Ecology and Evolutionary
Zoology Biology
  Physiology

Preparation for Health Professions

Students majoring in biology intending to pursue careers in the allied health fields may follow the guidelines for a B.S. degree, or a B.A. degree with the addition of MATH 161, CHEM 335B, and PHYS 210AB and 209AB.

For admission to most universities, it is typically recommended or required that specific biology courses be incorporated into the B.A. or B.S. degree. These are:

Pre-Medical
BIOL 320 Molecular Genetics 4
BIOL 325 Cell Biology 4
BIOL 370 Vertebrate Evolutionary Morphology 4
BIOL 372 Developmental Biology 4
Pre-Veterinary
BIOL 320 Molecular Genetics 4
BIOL 324 Animal Physiology 4
BIOL 372 Developmental Biology (required) 4
Pre-Dentistry
BIOL 320 Molecular Genetics 4
BIOL 324 Animal Physiology 4
 One of the following courses:
BIOL 340 General Bacteriology 4
BIOL 370 Vertebrate Evolutionary Morphology 4
BIOL 372 Developmental Biology 4
 One of the following courses:  
BIOL 380 Human Nutrition 3
BIOL 480 Immunology 4

Secondary Education

Teaching Credential Preparation in Life Science

Teaching biology as a subject requires a credential from the State of California, obtained by completing a Single Subject Credential Program (at SSU, through the Department of Education). The appropriate credential is in science with a biological sciences concentration. Biology students must demonstrate competence in the natural sciences and biology by passing the SSAT/Praxis examinations before admission to, or during completion of, their credential program (visit the Teacher Recruitment and Information Center, Stevenson Hall, Room 3023 for details). No specific degree or set of courses is required, but passage of the exams requires proficiency in life sciences, chemistry, geosciences (astronomy, geology, meteorology, and oceanography), physics, and general issues in science, as well as advanced knowledge of biology. Both the B.A. and B.S. degrees in biology provide strong background for passing the exams and gaining entrance into a credential program provided that coursework in physical sciences not specifically required by the degree is completed. See the department chair for additional information. Admission into the SSU credential program also requires that students pass the CBEST exam and complete these two courses:
EDUC 417 School and Society (counts in GE area D1) 3
EDUC 418 Learning and Development in Adolescents 3

Admission also requires completion of an approved, 40-hour field experience in middle school (20 hours) and high school classrooms (20 hours), as well as three letters of recommendation and an interview.

Note: SSU has applied to the state for a subject matter waiver program and anticipates approval in 2002. Requirements for this waiver will be available on the Biology Department web page once approval is granted.

Bachelor?s Degrees in Biology

  B.A. B.S.
Degree Requirements units units
General education
(excluding Math and Science)
39 39
Math and Science GE
MATH 165 (4)
CHEM 115A, 116A (5)
BIOL 121 (4)
13 13
Additional Biology 39 44
Additional Physical Sciences and Math 13-14 27
General electives 15-16 3
Total units needed for graduation 120 126

Sample Four-Year Program for Bachelor's Degree in Biology

Freshman Year: 31-33 units

Fall Semester (16 units) Spring Semester (15-17 units)
ENGL 101 (3)* PHIL 101 or 102 (3)
BIOL 121 or 122 (4) BIOL 121 or 122 (4)
MATH 165* (4) CHEM 115B/116B (5)
CHEM 115A/116A (5) Electives1 (3-5)

Sophomore Year: 31-35 units

Fall Semester (15-17 units) Spring Semester (16-18 units)
BIOL 123 (4) G.E. Group A1 course (3)
CHEM 335A (5) Electives2 (9-11)
Electives1 (6-8) BIOL UD3 core course (4)

Junior Year: 28-34 units

Fall Semester (14-17 units) Spring Semester (14-17 units)
 Complete Written English Proficiency Test after completing a total of 60 units  
Two BIOL UD3 core courses (8) 1-2 BIOL UD3 core courses (8)
Electives2 (6-9) Electives2 (6-9)

Senior Year: 30-36 units

Complete the biology B.A. requirements by completing required and elective courses in the major and support courses in physical sciences.

Complete the biology B.S. requirements by completing required and elective courses in the major and support courses in physical sciences and math.

Complete general education requirements to a total of 51 units, 9 of which must be upper division (48 for transfer students), including ethnic studies.

Complete total unit requirements 4 (for B.A. degree, minimum 120; for B.S. degree, minimum 126).

* If a student is not eligible to take either of these courses in the first semester, that student must be enrolled in the recommended preparatory course(s) and complete these courses in the next semester. Students must also delay CHEM 115A/116A until satisfying GE math eligibility.

1. Electives should include at least one lower-division (100-299) GE course each semester. Electives may include additional physical science and mathematics (consult your biology advisor). Unit total per semester should average approximately 15-16 throughout all eight semesters (8 x 16 = 128) to complete the degree requirements in four years.

2. Electives include upper-division BIOL electives and physical science support as well as upper-division (300-499) GE courses. Beginning in the semester in which 60 units total is reached, each student is required to complete 9 units of upper-division GE. It is recommended that all biology majors enroll in Biology Colloquium (BIOL 390), although it is not a required course. It may be taken as many semesters as you wish, but only 2 units may be applied to the major.

3. Most upper-division core courses require BIOL 123 as a prerequisite. However, specific UD core courses may be taken with only BIOL 121/122 as prerequisites (see course descriptions for exceptions).

4. Before or during Fall semester of the fourth year, all students planning to graduate that academic year must formally apply to graduate. With their advisor, they will complete the biology requirements form and list any remaining required courses they must complete to graduate.

Bachelor of Arts in Biology

Lower-Division Core Requirements

An introduction to the unifying principles of biology, to all kingdoms of living organisms, to evolution, genetics and ecology, and to the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the fundamental processes of life. The intention of this core is to develop an awareness of the broad scope of modern biology.
MATH 165 Elementary Statistics (applies in GE) 4
CHEM 115AB/116AB General Chemistry (5 apply in GE) 10
BIOL 121 Diversity, Structure and Function (applies in GE) 4
BIOL 122 Genetics, Evolution and Ecology 4
BIOL 123 Molecular and Cell Biology 4
Total units in lower-division core 26
Additional required natural sciences support courses 8-9
CHEM 335A Organic Chemistry 5
GEOL 102 (Intro Geology) or PHYS 210A/209A (General Physics with Laboratory) 3-4

Biology majors are expected to complete all of the lower-division core requirements before attaining junior standing (60 units). This maximizes flexibility in upper-division course selection by ensuring that essential prerequisites will have been completed.

BIOL 121, 122 and 123 should be completed before taking any upper-division course.

Upper-Division Core Requirements

Complete one course from each of the following groups (additional courses from each group may be used as electives or may be required for particular concentrations):
Organismal Biology (4 units minimum)
BIOL 336 Plant Biology (4)
BIOL 340 General Bacteriology (4)
BIOL 350 Invertebrate Biology (4)
BIOL 360 Vertebrate Biology (4)
Physiology (4 units minimum)
BIOL 324 Animal Physiology (4)
BIOL 326 Environmental Physiology (4)
BIOL 334 Plant Physiology (4)
BIOL 370 Vertebrate Evolutionary Morphology (4)
Molecular and Cell Biology (4 units minimum)
BIOL 320 Molecular Genetics (4)
BIOL 321 Molecular Microbiology (4)
BIOL 325 Cell Biology (4)
BIOL 383 Virology (4)
Ecology and Evolutionary Biology (4 units minimum)
BIOL 300 Ecology (4)
BIOL 301 Evolution (4)
BIOL 345 Biometry (4)
BIOL 375 Behavioral Ecology (4)

BA Concentrations

From among remaining courses used to satisfy UD core and electives, concentrations require specific courses as follows:

A. Marine Biology

BIOL 302 Marine Ecology 4
   
 One of the following courses:
BIOL 324 Animal Physiology 4
BIOL 326 Environmental Physics 4
   
 Both of the following courses:
BIOL 338 Aquatic Botany 4
BIOL 350 Invertebrate Biology 4

B. Botany

 One of the following courses:
BIOL 300 Ecology 4
BIOL 301 Evolution 4
   
 All of the following courses:
BIOL 330 Plant Taxonomy 4
BIOL 334 Plant Physiology 4
BIOL 336 Plant Biology 4
BIOL 338 Aquatic Botany 4

C. Zoology

 One of the following courses:
BIOL 300 Ecology 4
BIOL 301 Evolution 4
   
 One of the following courses:
BIOL 324 Animal Physiology 4
BIOL 326 Environmental Physiology 4
   
 One of the following courses:
BIOL 350 Invertebrate Biology 4
BIOL 355 Entomology 4
BIOL 482 Parasitology 4
   
 One of the following courses:  
BIOL 360 Vertebrate Biology 4
BIOL 370 Vertebrate Evolutionary Morphology 4

D. Microbiology

 Both of the following courses:
BIOL 321 Ecology 4
BIOL 340 General Bacteriology 4
   
 One of the following courses:
BIOL 324 Animal Physiology 4
BIOL 334 Plant Physiology 4
   
 Two of the following courses:  
BIOL 338 Aquatic Botany 4
BIOL 339 Mycology 4
BIOL 383 Virology 4
BIOL 480 Immunology 4
BIOL 482 Parasitology 4

Major Electives

Biology major electives are upper-division courses taken from among all courses listed in the catalog (300 level or above) beyond those required for the degree. As noted above, each student must take one course from each of four groups: Organismal Biology, Physiology, Molecular and Cell Biology, and Ecology and Evolutionary Biology. Students with a B.A. or B.S. concentration also have other required biology courses. Once all of these requirements have been met, other biology courses to meet the total upper-division unit requirement (31 units for B.A. or 36 for B.S.) are referred to as major electives. The department recommends three ways in which students can meet these elective requirements:

1. Taking an additional course in one or more of the required upper-division groups.

2. Taking courses that are intended for biology majors that are not in one of the four groups, such as BIOL 330 Plant Taxonomy or BIOL 372 Developmental Biology. The current list of such courses is as follows: BIOL 302, 313, 330, 338, 339, 355, 372, 380, 385, 460, 463, 465, 468, 480, 480L, 481, 482, 484 and 491, but other courses may be approved following this catalog edition. Undergraduates may also take a graduate course (500 level) as an elective with permission of the instructor. Students may take the colloquium (BIOL 390) twice for elective credit.

3. Taking courses that involve hands-on experience in biology, including BIOL 395, 495, 498, and 499. (See below for unit restrictions, which cover these courses as well as BIOL 496.)

Occasionally, students take courses related to biology from other departments, or find one of the department?s upper-division GE. courses of interest. Students may include in their electives up to a maximum of four units from among such courses (see section below on restrictions and exceptions for the list of these courses).

Restrictions and Exceptions. All courses that are included in the biology major, except BIOL 390, 395, 498, and 499, must be taken under the traditional grading mode (A-F). In the Cr/NC grading mode, a maximum of 4 units from any combination of the above courses may be included in the major. Regardless of grading mode, a maximum of 7 units from any combination of BIOL 390, 395, 495, 496, 498, and 499 may be included. In conjunction with a second major or minor in another department up to 4 units from the following list of courses may be included: ANTH 301, 302, 314, 318, 345, 414; BIOL 220, 224; CHEM 441, 445, 446; ENSP 315, 321, 323; GEOG 416; GEOL 105, 413; KIN 360; PSY 451.
Total units in B.A. major electives 15
Total biology units in the B.A. 43

Bachelor of Science in Biology

Compared to the B.A. program, the B.S. program requires 8-14 more units of physical sciences and mathematics support courses, more focused upper-division major course selections, a senior research project, and 126 total units for graduation. A total of 36 units of U.D. BIOL is required. Students must specify and meet requirements for a particular concentration for the B.S. The lower-division core is structured so that switching between the B.A. and B.S. programs in the first two years will not delay completing either degree.

Lower-Division Core

Identical to the B.A. degree.

Upper-Division Core

Identical to the B.A. degree.

Additional Natural Sciences Support Courses: 22

The general structure for all B.S. concentrations is:
MATH 161 Calculus 4
CHEM 335AB Organic Chemistry 8
PHYS 210 AB General Physics 6
PHYS 209A or 209B General Physics Laboratory 1(students with calculus may take PHYS 114 (4), PHYS 116 (1), and PHYS 214 (4) to meet the physics requirement) Concentration-specific courses (below) 3

Concentrations

From among courses used to satisfy U.D. core requirements or electives, concentrations require specific courses as follows:

A. Aquatic Biology

All of the following courses:
BIOL 326 Environmental Physiology 4
BIOL 338 Aquatic Botany 4
BIOL 340 General Bacteriology 4
BIOL 350 Invertebrate Biology 4
Additional courses from U.D. core 8
BIOL 496 Senior Research 2
Upper-division biology electives* 10
Additional physical sciences: One of the following: CHEM 340 (3), CHEM 445 (3), CHEM 446 (3), or GEOL 323 (3).

B. Molecular and Cell Biology

Both of the following courses: 8
  BIOL 320 Molecular Genetics (4)
BIOL 325 Cell Biology (4)
Two of the following courses: 8
 
BIOL 340 General Bacteriology (4)
BIOL 321 Molecular Microbiology (4)
BIOL 372 Developmental Biology (4)
BIOL 383 Virology (4)
BIOL 480 Immunology (4)
One of the following courses: 2-4
 CHEM 441 Biochemical Methods (3) BIOL 480L Immunology Laboratory (2) BIOL 544 Advanced Cell Biology (4) BIOL 585 Recombinant DNA Lab (4)
Additional courses from U.D. core 8-12
BIOL 496 Senior Research 2
Upper-division biology electives* 2-8

Additional physical sciences and math: one of the following: CHEM 441 (3), CHEM 445 (3), or CHEM 446 (3). One or more of the following is recommended: CS 150 (4), MATH 211S (2), additional physics lab: PHYS 209A (1) or PHYS 209B (1).

C. Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

All of the following courses: 12
BIOL 300 Ecology 4
BIOL 301 Evolution 4
BIOL 345 Biometry 4
One of the following courses: 4
 BIOL 302 Marine Ecology (4)
BIOL 370 Vertebrate Evolutionary Morphology (4)
BIOL 375 Behavioral Ecology (4)
BIOL 502 Community Ecology (4)
BIOL 503 Evolutionary Ecology (4)
Additional courses from U.D. core 12
BIOL 496 Senior Research 2
Upper-division biology electives* 6

Additional physical sciences and math: one of the following: GEOL 102 (3) or GEOG 204 (3). One or more of the following is recommended: MATH 211S (2), additional physics lab: PHYS 209A (1) or PHYS 209B (1), GEOL 413.

D. Physiology

One of these organismal courses 4
 BIOL 336 Plant Biology (4)
BIOL 350 Invertebrate Biology (4)
BIOL 360 Vertebrate Biology (4)
Two of the following courses: 8
 
BIOL 324 Animal Physiology (4)
BIOL 326 Environmental Physiology (4)
BIOL 334 Plant Physiology (4)
One of the following courses 3-4
 BIOL 339 Mycology (4)
BIOL 340 General Bacteriology (4)
BIOL 370 Vertebrate Evolutionary Morphology (4)
BIOL 426 Neurobiology (3)
BIOL 482 Parasitology (4)
Additional courses from U.D. core 8
BIOL 496 Senior Research 2
Upper-division biology electives* 10

Additional physical sciences: one of the following: CHEM 340 (3), CHEM 445 (3), or CHEM 446 (3). One or more of the following is recommended: PHYS 313/313L (4), ENSP 333 (3-4).

*See ?Restrictions and Exceptions? section for major electives with the B.A. for limitations on Cr/NC grading mode and course selection.

Minor in Biology

The minor consists of a minimum of 20 units in biology with a GPA of 2.00 or higher. The purpose of the minor is to provide the student with an understanding of general biology and to supplement the student?s major with pertinent biology courses.

Students will structure programs in consultation with the chair of the Biology Department. General requirements that must be met in any plan are:

Both of the following courses:
BIOL 121 Diversity, Structure and Function 4
BIOL 122 Genetics, Evolution and Ecology 4

Twelve additional Biology units

At least six of these units must be U.D., and at least four of those must be a majors? course with laboratory. Colloquium (BIOL 390, 1 unit) may be counted once within the minor.

All courses applied to the biology minor must be taken under the traditional grading mode (A-F), BIOL 390 excepted.

Master of Arts In Biology

The M.A. program provides students with an opportunity to conduct original research in collaboration with a biology faculty member. The department has an active group of graduate students who pursue diverse research topics in the four major areas of biology: molecular and cell biology, physiology and functional morphology, ecology and evolutionary biology, and organismal biology. In addition to completing a thesis research project, all students are required to complete 30 units of committee-approved courses. Typically, students take two to three years to complete their graduate degree.

Admission to the Program

The graduate application package consists of the following: 1) a completed University application (obtain from Admissions and Records); 2) official copies of all undergraduate transcripts; 3) a 1-2 page Statement of Purpose essay detailing the student?s background in biology, objectives for graduate school and career goals; 4) two letters of recommendation from individuals familiar with the student?s background in biology and able to comment on his/her potential for conducting original work; 5) Graduate Record Examination (GRE) scores for the General test (Biology Subject scores strongly recommended).

The originals for items 1-3 must be submitted to SSU?s Admissions and Records Office. Copies of items 1-3 and originals of items 4 and 5 must be submitted to the Department of Biology (Graduate Coordinator). Application deadlines in the Department are January 31 for the fall semester and October 31 for the spring semester. A complete application must be received before an applicant will be considered for admission.

Applications are reviewed for evidence that the prospective student is capable of initiating and performing original research. As a general guideline, the Department uses the following criteria to determine this potential: 1) an undergraduate degree or equivalent in biology, including one course in calculus or statistics, one year of general chemistry, one semester of organic chemistry, and at least one other course in physical sciences; 2) a G.P.A. of 3.0 or higher in the last 60 units; 3) a score at or above the 50th percentile on each section of the General Examination of the GRE; 4) evidence in letters of recommendation of potential for conducting independent and original research in biology; 5) acceptance by a Biology faculty member (tenure-track or approved SSU adjunct) to serve as faculty advisor. Students are strongly encouraged to review the information on faculty members contained in the Department?s website and contact them prior to completing an application.

Biology Courses (BIOL)

Classes are offered in the semesters indicated. Please see the Schedule of Classes for most current information and faculty teaching assignments. Biology majors are encouraged to complete all the lower-division core requirements before attaining junior standing (60 units). This maximizes flexibility in upper-division course selection by ensuring that essential prerequisites will have been completed.

115 An Introduction to Biology (3) / Fall, Spring

Lecture, 3 hours. The unifying concepts of biology. Topics include the chemical and physical basis of life; cellular structure and function; molecular and Mendelian genetics; reproduction, development, structure and function of representative plants and animals; and evolution and ecology. Satisfies GE, category B2 (Biological Sciences). Not applicable to the biology major.

115L Introduction to Biology Laboratory (1)* Fall, Spring

Laboratory, 3 hours. Laboratory work in biology, which includes the following: artificial and natural ecosystems; cellular structure and function; cell division; Mendelian genetics; and the biology of organisms. Satisfies GE laboratory requirement. Prerequisite: previous or concurrent enrollment in BIOL 115. Not applicable to the biology major.

121 Diversity, Structure and Function (4)* Fall, Spring

Lecture, 3 hours; laboratory 3 hours. First in three-semester series required for biology majors. Introduces the extraordinary diversity of life and evolutionary relationships between groups of organisms, and compares body plans. For biology majors, satisfies GE, categories B2 or B3.

122 Genetics, Evolution and Ecology (4)* / Fall, Spring

Lecture, 3 hours; laboratory 3 hours. Second in three-semester series required for biology majors. Introduces mechanism of inheritance, evolution, and ecology. Recent advances in understanding processes underlying ecological and evolutionary relationships will be emphasized. For biology majors, satisfies GE, categories B2 or B3. May be taken before BIOL 121.

123 Molecular and Cell Biology (4)* / Fall, Spring

Lecture, 3 hours; laboratory 3 hours. Third in three-semester series required for biology majors. Introduction to cell and molecular biology, with emphasis on molecular processes, cellular physiology, and regulatory mechanisms. For biology majors, satisfies GE, categories B2 or B3. Prerequisites: BIOL 121 and 122 or consent of instructor and CHEM 115AB/116AB. Concurrent or prior enrollment in CHEM 335A recommended.

218 General Microbiology (4)*/ Fall or Spring

Lecture, 3 hours; laboratory, 3 hours. An introduction to the organization and characteristics of microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi, protists and viruses. Topics include their role in agriculture, industry and disease processes. Prerequisites: BIOL 115 and CHEM 115AB/116AB or 105AB.

220 Human Anatomy (4)* / Fall, Spring

Lecture, 3 hours; laboratory, 3 hours. Survey of the body systems. Designed for pursuing careers in the allied health professions. Satisfies GE, category B3 and GE laboratory requirement. Prerequisite: BIOL 115 or 121/122.

224 Human Physiology (4) / Fall, Spring

Lecture, 3 hours; laboratory, 3 hours. An integrated examination of the human body as an efficient system maintained by a complex of interacting, homeostatic mechanisms. Includes fundamental principles of function of major organ systems. Designed for those pursuing careers in the allied health professions. Satisfies GE, category B3 and GE laboratory requirement. Prerequisites: BIOL 115 or 121/122 and CHEM 115AB/116AB or 105AB.

300 Ecology (4)* / Fall

Lecture, 3 hours; laboratory and field, 3 hours. A current overview of this field, with in-depth coverage of ecology at the population, community, and ecosystem level. Emphasis on diverse taxa and habitats, hypothesis testing, and data collection and analysis. Prerequisites: BIOL 121 and 122 and MATH 165.

301 Evolution (4) / Spring

Lecture, 3 hours; laboratory and field, 3 hours. A broad examination of the patterns and processes involved in the evolution of life on earth. Includes inquiry into the origin of life, microevolutionary processes, systematics, and large-scale evolutionary history. Prerequisite: BIOL 123.

302 Marine Ecology (4)*

Lecture, 3 hours; laboratory and field, 3 hours. An overview of current topics in marine ecology and marine physiological ecology, with emphasis on integration of interactions between the physiological, population, and community levels. Extensive focus on field or laboratory research projects that emphasize experimental design, data analysis, and presentation of data. Prerequisites: BIOL 121/122.

304 Natural History of the Hawaiian Islands (3) Fall or Spring

Lecture, 3 hours. The origin and evolution of the flora and fauna of the most isolated archipelago in the world; geologic history and context of volcanic oceanic islands; conservation biology efforts to save the rare and endangered species of Hawaii. Satisfies GE, category B3. Prerequisite: BIOL 115 or 121/122.

308 Environmental Toxicology (3) / Spring

Lecture, 3 hours. Information needed to formulate a philosophy of chemical use: the nature of the interaction of toxicants and living organisms; categories of toxicological activity; toxicological evaluation and environmental monitoring; and governmental regulations and procedures. Satisfies GE, category B3 (specific Emphasis in Natural Sciences). Prerequisite: BIOL 115 or 121/122.

309 Biology of Cancer (3) / Fall or Spring

Lecture, 3 hours. Biological, clinical, environmental, and psychosocial aspects of cancer explored through the perspectives of medical researchers, physicians, patients, and health educators. This lecture series is intended for students of all majors, for those in the health professions and for the general public. It is designed so that everyone (regardless of scientific background) will benefit. Satisfies GE, category B3. Prerequisite: BIOL 115 or 121/122.

311 Sexually Transmitted Diseases (3)/ Fall or Spring

Lecture, 3 hours. Biological, environmental, societal, and psychosocial aspects of sexually transmitted diseases. Satisfies GE, category B3. Prerequisite: BIOL 115 or 121/122.

312 Biological Oceanography (3) / Fall or Spring

Lecture, 3 hours. An introduction to the world?s oceans with emphasis on the way in which their physical properties support life. Satisfies GE, category B3. Prerequisite: BIOL 115 or 121/122.

313 Fire Ecology (1) / Fall or Spring

Lecture, 1 hour. Fire history, adaptations of plants and animals to fire, and the role of fire in selected ecosystems, including pine, redwood and sequoia forests, grasslands, and chaparral. Wildfire suppression and the use of prescribed fire are covered in detail. Prerequisite: BIOL 115 or 121/122.

314 Field Biology (3)* / Fall or Spring

Lecture, 2 hours; laboratory and field, 3 hours. A course emphasizing plant and animal communities of Northern California. Satisfies GE, category B3 and GE laboratory requirement. Prerequisite: BIOL 115 or 121/122.

318 Biology of Aging (3) / Fall or Spring

Lecture, 3 hours. Examines the biological processes occurring in a cumulative fashion in the course of human senescence, including the medical and social consequences. Satisfies GE, category E. Prerequisite: BIOL 115 or 121/122.

320 Molecular Genetics (4)* / Spring

Lecture, 3 hours; laboratory, 3 hours. Gene structure and function at the level of DNA, RNA, and protein interactions. Emphasis on molecular analytical techniques used for genetic analysis in a diversity of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. Prerequisites: BIOL 123 and CHEM 335A.

321 Molecular Microbiology (4)* / Fall

Lecture, 3 hours; laboratory, 3 hours. The biochemical and molecular processes of pathogenic organisms within the four major groups of microbes: bacteria, parasites, fungi, and viruses. Prerequisites: BIOL 123 and CHEM 335A.

324 Animal Physiology (4)* / Spring

Lecture, 3 hours; laboratory, 3 hours. Principles and concepts of animal function, with emphasis on cellular and biochemical/molecular bases of physiological activities in tissues and organ systems, environmental adaptations, and comparative homeostatic mechanism. Prerequisite: BIOL 123.

325 Cell Biology (4)* / Fall

Lecture, 3 hours; laboratory, 3 hours. An introduction to structural and molecular organization of eukaryotic cells and tissues. Specific topics will represent the central core of cell biology and are concerned mainly with those properties that are common to most eukaryotic cells. Prerequisites: BIOL123 and CHEM 335A.

326 Environmental Physiology (4)* / Fall

Lecture, 3 hours; laboratory, 3 hours. Course examines the adaptations and physiological responses that allow animals to live under widely different environmental conditions. Laboratory and field exercises will utilize modern techniques of physiological measurement to examine adaptive strategies among and between species in different environmental conditions. Prerequisite: BIOL 123.

330 Plant Taxonomy (4)* / Spring

Lecture, 3 hours; laboratory and field, 3 hours. An introduction to the principles and practices of plant taxonomy, including approaches to classification, data analysis, and a survey of vascular plant families in the California flora. A minimum of two Saturday field trips is required. Prerequisites: BIOL 121 and 122.

332 Plants and Civilization (3)

Lecture, 3 hours; field trips. Historical and evolutionary interrelationships between humans and domesticated plants, including the origins of agriculture and its development. Satisfies GE, category B3. Prerequisite: BIOL 115 or 121/122.

334 Plant Physiology (4)* / Fall

Lecture, 3 hours; laboratory, 3 hours. Concepts and principles of plant function. The following areas are investigated in detail: photosynthesis, water relations, mineral nutrition, and plant growth regulation. Prerequisite: BIOL 123.

336 Plant Biology (4)* / Fall

Lecture, 3 hours; laboratory, 3 hours. An overview of plant biology, with focus on structure, function, reproduction, and evolution. Emphasis is on flowering plants, but a survey of all plant and plant-like organisms, both modern and extinct, is included. Prerequisites: BIOL 121 and 122.

338 Aquatic Botany (4)* / Spring

Lecture, 2 hours; laboratory and field, 6 hours. Marine, estuarine and freshwater plants and algae, with emphasis on their ecology, primary production, growth, and taxonomy. Prerequisites: BIOL 121 and 122.

339 Mycology (4)* / Fall

Lecture, 2 hours; laboratory and field, 6 hours. Principles and techniques for studying fungi and allied organisms, including the development of laboratory culture, identification and field work on terrestrial and aquatic fungi. Prerequisites: BIOL 121 and 122.

340 General Bacteriology (4)* / Spring

Lecture, 2 hours; laboratory, 6 hours. Prokaryotes: their taxonomy, physiology, ecology, and genetics. Prerequisites: BIOL 123 and CHEM 335A.

345 Biometry (4) / Fall

Lecture, 3 hours; laboratory, 3 hours. Introduces students to quantitative analysis of biological data. The nature of biological data, principles of experimental design, and essential statistical tools used by biologists to analyze their results. Examples used in the course will be drawn from physiology, ecology, evolution, and medicine. Laboratory sections will involve computer exercises, discussions, and student presentations. Prerequisites: BIOL 123 and MATH 165.

350 Invertebrate Biology (4)* / Spring

Lecture, 3 hours; laboratory and field, 3 hours. Exploration of the systematics, functional morphology, behavior, and ecology of invertebrate animals. Prerequisite: BIOL 121 and 122.

355 Entomology (4)* / Fall, even years

Lecture, 3 hours; laboratory and field, 3 hours. A comprehensive foundation in the biology of insects, with emphasis on ecology, behavior, evolution, and systematics. Emphasis on the diagnostic features of insects and their major orders. Prerequisites: BIOL 121 and 122.

360 Vertebrate Biology (4)* / Fall

Lecture, 3 hours; laboratory and field, 3 hours. Exploration of the systematics, behavioral ecology, biogeography, evolution, and conservation biology of fish, amphibia, reptiles, birds, and mammals. At least one weekend field trip. Prerequisites: BIOL 121 and 122.

370 Vertebrate Evolutionary Morphology (4)* Spring

Lecture, 3 hours; laboratory, 3 hours. Trends in the evolution of structure and function in the vertebrates. This course focuses on morphological adaptations at the organ system level that have enabled vertebrates to diversify and succeed in a wide range of habitats and environments. Prerequisites: BIOL 121 and 122.

372 Developmental Biology (4)* / Spring

Lecture, 3 hours; laboratory, 3 hours. Patterns of animal development. This course is designed to provide students with a comprehensive appreciation of the developmental process, presenting detailed descriptions of developmental mechanism along with a conceptual framework for understanding how development occurs. Prerequisite: BIOL 123.

375 Behavioral Ecology (4) / Spring

Lecture, 3 hours; laboratory and field, 3 hours. Examines how the behavior of animals functions to optimize their fitness. Explores such topics as foraging, altruism, breeding systems, sexual selection, deceit, communication systems, and aggression with emphasis on techniques for formulating and testing hypotheses. Prerequisites: BIOL 121 and 122.

380 Human Nutrition (3) / Fall or Spring

Lecture, 3 hours. Concepts of modern nutrition, including some discussion of principal nutritional problems and modern food processing methods. Prerequisites: BIOL 115 or BIOL 121/122 and one course in beginning chemistry.

383 Virology (4) / Spring

Lecture, 3 hours; discussion 1 hour. Viruses: their characteristics, classification, genetics, and host-parasite interactions, including methods of disease prevention, control, and applications in biotechnology. Prerequisites: BIOL 123 and CHEM 335A.

385 Contemporary Issues in Biology (3)

Lecture, 3 hours. Selected topics related to the quality of life and the search for perspectives on the future. May be repeated with different topics. Satisfies GE, category B3. Prerequisite: BIOL 115 or 121/122.

390 Biology Colloquium (1) / Fall, Spring

Lecture, 1 hour. A series of lectures by faculty, master?s degree candidates, and invited guests on current research and contemporary issues in biology. All majors and graduate students are encouraged to enroll each semester, although no more than 2 units are applicable to the biology major. Cr/NC only.

395 Community Involvement Program (1-4) Fall, Spring

CIP involves students in basic community problems related to biology?performing such tasks as tutoring, reading to the blind, service to local, county, and state agencies, and service as teacher aides to elementary schools. Students receive 1-4 units depending on the specific task performed. A total of 6 units of CIP credit may be applied toward a degree. Cr/NC only. Prerequisites: approved petition to enroll and completion of biology minor core.

424 Biological Action of Drugs and Poisons (3)

Lecture, 3 hours. Physiological effects on mammals of common medicines, abused drugs, commercial poisons and toxins produced by plants and animals. Prerequisites: BIOL 224, 324 or 326 and CHEM 335A.

426 Neurobiology (3)

Lecture, 3 hours. Vertebrate and invertebrate nerve cells, nerve networks and behavior, nervous development and differentiation, and functional anatomy of neural systems. Prerequisite: BIOL 324 or 326.

460 Ichthyology (4)*

Lecture, 3 hours; laboratory and field, 3 hours. At least one weekend field trip. Morphology, classification, distribution, ecology, and evolutionary history of fishes. Prerequisite: BIOL 360 or 370.

463 Herpetology (4)* / Spring, odd years

Lecture, 3 hours; laboratory and field, 3 hours. Classification, functional and evolutionary morphology, environmental physiology, and ecology of reptiles and amphibians. Includes at least one weekend field trip. Prerequisite: BIOL 360 or 370.

465 Ornithology (4)*

Lecture, 3 hours; laboratory and field, 3 hours. Avian classification, anatomy and life histories, including such topics as molts, distribution, migration and breeding habits. Prerequisite: BIOL 360 or 370.

468 Mammalogy (4)* / Spring, odd years

Lecture, 3 hours; laboratory and field, 3 hours. Characteristics, classification, and a functional approach to examine broader conceptual issues including evolution, behavior, ecology, biogeography, and conservation of mammals. Prerequisite: BIOL 360 or 370.

480 Immunology (4) / Fall

Lecture, 3 hours; discussion 1 hour. The component elements of the immune response; antigens and antibodies; theories of antibody synthesis, cellular reactions, hypersensitivity; immunogenetics. Prerequisites: one core course from each of the following U.D. core areas: Physiology, Molecular and Cell Biology.

480L Immunology Laboratory (2)* / Spring, even years

Laboratory, 6 hours. Qualitative and quantitative techniques of immunology and properties of the immune system, including antigen-antibody interactions and cellular immunity. Independent research project required. Prerequisite: BIOL 480.

481 Medical Microbiology (5)* / Fall, odd years

Lecture, 3 hours; laboratory, 6 hours. Mechanisms of infectious diseases caused by bacteria and fungi, host-parasite interactions in the disease process, therapeutic modalities and infection control. Laboratory techniques for the cultivation, isolation, and identification of pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Emphasis is on methods and procedures currently utilized in diagnostic laboratories. Prerequisite: BIOL 321 or BIOL 340.

482 Parasitology (4)* / Spring

Lecture, 3 hours; laboratory, 3 hours. The biology, epidemiology, ecology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and prevention of parasitic diseases affecting animals and humans. Students will learn about the host-parasite relationship in the context of how social, economic, and ecological factors contribute to parasitic infections and disease. Labs involve microscopic identification of prepared and live specimens. Prerequisite: BIOL 324 or BIOL 326.

484 Hematology (4)* / Fall, odd years

Lecture, 3 hours; laboratory, 3 hours. Blood: the normal and abnormal structure and function of red cells, white cells, and hemostatic mechanisms. Prerequisite: BIOL 324 or BIOL 326.

491 Library and Information Resources ? Natural Sciences (2)

Techniques for finding library and information resources in the life sciences. Course covers use and evaluation of print and electronic information sources, including online and Internet databases, research strategies and techniques, compiling and preparing bibliographies, scientific writing form and style, and organization of personal reference files. Prerequisite: at least one biology course or consent of instructor.

495 Special Studies (1-4)* / Fall, Spring

Investigations to meet an advanced specialized study need beyond the department curriculum. The project should be planned and described in written form with consent of the faculty sponsor. Prerequisites: a major or minor in biology with an upper-division standing; consent of instructor and department chair, and approved petition to enroll.

496 Senior Research for the B.S. Degree (2)* Fall, Spring

Experimental or observational research for the B.S. degree conducted under the guidance of one or more of the biology faculty. A written report and an oral presentation of results in a public forum are required. Prerequisites: senior standing in the major.

497 Selected Topics in Biology (1-4)*

Intensive study of biological topics, which will vary from semester to semester. May be repeated for credit and may be applicable to the requirements for a major in biology. Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

498 Biology Practicum (1-4) / Fall, Spring

Application of previously studied theory through supervised instructional work experience in biology. Intended for professional growth for undergraduates. Enrollees are required to write an evaluation of their course experience. May be repeated for up to a total of 4 units. Prerequisites: upper-division standing in biology, consent of the instructor in whose course the student will be working, and an approved petition to enroll.

499 Internship in Biology (1-4) / Fall, Spring

Work that provides training in the use of biological skills in the community. Requires written agreement by students, faculty sponsor, on-the-job supervisor, and field experience coordinators; please see department office for details. May be repeated for up to 8 units of credit; 3 hours per week for each unit. Cr/NC grading only.

Graduate Courses

500S Graduate Seminar (1-2)

Advanced seminars exploring diverse topics in biological sciences. Topics vary from semester to semester, depending on faculty interest and expertise. This course may be repeated for credit.

502 Community Ecology (4)* / Spring, odd years

Lecture, 2 hours; laboratory and field, 6 hours. Advanced exploration of ecological principles at the population and community level. Extensive focus on field research that emphasizes study design, sampling methods, statistical analysis, and presentation of data in written and oral forms. Prerequisites: BIOL 300 and BIOL 345.

503 Evolutionary Ecology (4)* / Spring, even years

Lecture, 3 hours; laboratory, 3 hours. Overview of the application of evolutionary principles to the study of natural populations in the field. Focus on principles of natural selection, population genetics, and adaptation. Emphasis on research projects and oral and written presentation of results. Prerequisites: BIOL 300, 301 or 345 recommended, or consent of instructor.

510 Selected Topics in Biology (2-4)*

Intensive study of biological topics, which will vary from semester to semester. Prerequisites: adequate undergraduate preparation in the topic under consideration and graduate or last-semester-senior standing with consent of instructor.

511 Conservation Genetics (2) / Fall, odd years

Lecture, 1 hour; discussion, 1 hour. An examination of the scientific approaches applied to species conservation. Although molecular genetic approaches will be emphasized, a variety of other approaches will also be considered (e.g., captive breeding, population viability analysis, and translocation). Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

512 Conservation Ecology (2) / Spring, even years

Lecture, 1 hour; discussion, 1 hour. A seminar format with occasional lectures. An advanced exploration of current topics in the rapidly expanding field of conservation ecology. Specific topics considered will vary from semester to semester, depending on student interests. However, topics will commonly include habitat fragmentation and loss, global climate change, metapopulation dynamics, biological invasions, restoration ecology, and design and management of preserves. Prerequisite: BIOL 300.

513 Speciation (2) / Spring, odd years

Lecture, 1 hour; discussion, 1 hour. Examination of the theoretical and empirical approaches to defining species and a detailed survey of speciation modes and mechanisms. Lectures provide a framework for student led discussion of specific topics and case studies. Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

514 Systematics (2) / Fall, even years

Lecture, 1 hour; discussion, 1 hour. A seminar format with occasional lectures. An in-depth examination of how we detect, describe, and explain diversity in the biological world. Topics include: history of biological classification, taxonomic nomenclature, analytical techniques and applications, and case histories. Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

515 Macroevolution (2)

Lecture, 1 hour; discussion, 1 hour. A seminar format with occasional lectures. A topical and historical overview of the major macroevolutionary transitions that have occurred during the history of life. Particular attention will be given to broad patterns of change over time at higher levels of structural/organismic organization. Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

517 Paradigms in Parasitology (2) / Fall, odd years

Lecture, 1 hour; discussion, 1 hour. A seminar format with occasional lectures. Parasitology is a subject area that crosses many biological disciplines, and concepts in parasitology can be applied to any field of science. Students may choose topics that most closely relate to their research interests. Topics may include: ecology of emerging infectious diseases, how parasites affect their host?s behavior, co-evolution of host-parasite associations, RNA editing, and how parasites evade the immune system. Prerequisite: consent of instructor; parasitology background not required.

518 Biotechnology (2)

Lecture, 1 hour; discussion, 1 hour. A seminar format with occasional lectures. The field of biotechnology is moving at a rapid pace, and many of the molecular and biochemical techniques are being applied to a wide variety of biological disciplines. Topics include: structure-based approach to drug design, expressing recombinant proteins, DNA vaccines, and toxicity screening. Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

544 Advanced Cell Biology (4)* / Spring, odd years

Lecture, 2 hours; laboratory, 6 hours. Development and applications of major concepts in modern cell biology. Specific topics will include membrane structure and properties, metabolic pathways and physiology of energy conversion, cell signaling and principles of intercellular communication, cell-cycle dynamics and macromolecular regulation of cell division. Prerequisites: BIOL 325, and BIOL 324 or 334.

578 Project Continuation (1-3) / Fall, Spring

Designed for students working on their thesis or master?s project but who have otherwise completed all graduate coursework toward their degree. This course cannot be applied toward the minimum number of units needed for completion of the master?s degree. Prerequisite: permission of the graduate coordinator. Cr/NC only.

585 Recombinant DNA Laboratory (4)* / Fall

Laboratory, 9 hours; discussion, 1 hour. Techniques for the manipulation of DNA through gene cloning applicable in the study of all biological processes. Prerequisites: BIOL 320 or BIOL 321 and CHEM 340 or BIOL 340.

595 Special Studies in Biology (1-3)* / Fall, Spring

Investigations to meet highly specialized needs and to explore possible thesis topics. Project should be planned and described in writing with consent of faculty sponsor. Prerequisite: approved petition to enroll.

598 Graduate Practicum (1-4) / Fall, Spring

Application of previously studied theory to development and delivery of new instructional materials. Intended to provide professional growth for graduate students. Enrollees are required to write an evaluation of their course experience. Prerequisites: graduate standing in biology, consent of the instructor in whose course the student will be working, and an approved petition to enroll.

599 M.A. Thesis (1-3)* / Fall, Spring

Original investigation based on laboratory or field research that meets the department and university standards. Prerequisite: admission to classified standing and advancement to candidacy.


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