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Education: Reading, Language and Culture

Department Office
Stevenson Hall 3004
707 664-3238
fax 707 664-4200
www.sonoma.edu/education

Administrative Coordinator
Leslie Mouton

Department Chair
Paul crowley

Administrative Coordinator
Leslie Mouton

Faculty
Paul Crowley, Jayne Delawter, Sally Hurtado, Hee-Won Kang, mary Ann Nickel

Bilingual CLAD Teaching Credential / Master of Arts in Education: Concentration in Reading and Language / Reading Certificate Program / Reading and Language Arts Specialist Credential / Multiple Subject (EDMS) Course Descriptions

The Department of Reading, Language and Culture is dedicated to excellence in the preparation of teachers and the on-going professional development of practicing teachers in the areas of bilingual education, and reading and language arts education. Our programs are based on sound educational practice, current research knowledge, sensitivity to the needs of P-12 education, appreciation for diversity, and respect for all learners.

M.A. in education programs are designed with both full-time and part-time students in mind. Some master's degree programs may be taken concurrently with advanced credential programs.

Note: Program requirements change periodically, and current information may not be available in this catalog. For more detailed information on credentials and other education programs, please see the University's special bulletins, the University web site, and the School of Education's current program brochures and policy statements.

Special Resources

Teacher Recruitment and Information Center (TRIC)The Teacher Recruitment and Information Center is available to provide information and admissions applications for all School of Education programs.

TRIC is open daily for student drop-in or telephone requests. For advising about programs, applications, and options, consult the TRIC office in Stevenson Hall 3011, 707 664-2131.

Credentials Office

The Credentials Office serves as the admissions and records center for all programs offered in the School of Education and is responsible for the recommendation of teaching and service credentials. Credentials analysts and staff are available for providing application information and credential information to prospective students, continuing students, out of state teachers/administrators, University constituents and the University service area in general.

Career Outlook

California faces the daunting task of replacing 300,000 teachers over the next ten years. Newly credentialed teachers are generally finding jobs rather rapidly today, with equally good prospects for the future. Currently there exist shortages of credentialed teachers in mathematics, science, special education, Spanish, and bilingual education. In addition, graduates of the School of Education find positions in community agencies and in the private sector.

Programs Offered in the Department of Reading, Language and Culture

In conjunction with the Department of Early Childhood and Elementary Education (ECEE), the Department of Reading, Language and Culture offers the Bilingual CLAD credential. The RLC Department also offers graduate programs in reading and language including the Master's Degree in Reading and Language, and the Reading Certificate, and is currently undergoing the approval process for Reading and Language Arts Specialist credential program.

English language development and bilingual teachers are now central to staffing California's schools. With the introduction of a combined Bilingual Crosscultural Language and Academic Development (BCLAD) credential, many more teachers will enter the profession with the basic knowledge necessary to meet the needs of California's diverse student population. The BCLAD program at Sonoma State has a Spanish language emphasis reflecting the demographics of Sonoma State University's service area. The program authorizes the candidate to provide instruction for English language development, specially designed content instruction delivered in English, primary language development, and content instruction delivered in Spanish.

The Reading, Language and Culture Department also offers four graduate programs for teachers interested in professional development and licensure in reading and language arts: The Master's Degree in Education with an Emphasis in Reading and Language; the Reading Certificate; and the Reading and Language Arts Specialist Credential. These programs may be taken individually or candidates may complete the M.A. degree program and the Reading Certificate/Reading and Language Arts Specialist Credential programs simultaneously.

I. Bilingual CLAD Teaching Credential

The Bilingual Crosscultural, Language and Academic Development (BCLAD) credential program prepares teachers to work in Spanish bilingual classrooms, with English language learners and/or native English speakers. BCLAD teachers often take leadership roles in schools in working with teachers in developing curriculum designed to support English language learners in regular classroom settings. Due to the demographics of California, there is a tremendous need for teachers who are knowledgeable about and sensitive to the needs of native Spanish speakers. This credential authorizes the holder to teach in a self-contained Spanish bilingual classroom preschool through grade 12. It is most frequently used for teaching in elementary classrooms.

Students pursuing the BCLAD Credential may select from among the approved teaching credential subject matter preparation programs within the following departments:

Chicano and Latino Studies(CALS)


Nichols Hall 214, 707 664-2369
*Note: Candidates will fulfill CALS prerequisites for the BCLAD program in this subject matter preparation program

The basic authorization to teach in the California public schools requires the following:

  1. Possession of a bachelor's degree.
  2. Verification of appropriate subject matter competency, either an approved subject matter preparation program or passage of appropriate
  3. state-approved examination(s).
  4. Submission of scores for the California Basic Education Skills Test for teachers (CBEST).
  5. Completion of a college-level course or college-level examination that covers the U.S. Constitution. POLS 200 or 202 at SSU will meet the requirement.
  6. Completion of a state-approved program of professional teacher education.
  7. Filing of the application for a Certificate of Clearance, which includes fingerprinting.

Completion of the requirements listed above will allow an individual to obtain a preliminary basic teaching credential. A professional clear teaching credential will be recommended by the University upon completion of an approved fifth year of study (30 units beyond the bachelor's degree) that includes requirements in health education/drug abuse, mainstreaming, computer education and cardiopulmonaryresuscitation (CPR).

Note: Contact the Credentials office for the latest information regarding legislative changes in the basic credential programs. Students should consult with the credentials office and the program advisor during their first semester on campus if they plan to pursue a credential.

Requirements for Admission to Basic Teaching Credential Preparation Programs

All credential candidates must complete the following before admission to the professional preparation programs:
  1. Admission to the university.
  2. Grade point average of 2.75 in upper-division and/or graduate coursework or a 2.67 overall grade point average.
  3. Submission of scores for California Basic Educational Skills Test (CBEST).
  4. A minimum of 40 hours of documented, supervised field experience. (Please see Prerequisite Field Experience Requirement Documentation form for details).
  5. Successful completion of an admissions interview with a member of the School of Education.
  6. Demonstration of aptitude, personality, and character traits that satisfy the standards of the teaching profession. Assessment of these qualities will be made by the School of Education through evaluation of interviews, letters of recommendation, and candidates' professionalgoals statements.

Some students may be admitted to basic teaching credential programs who have not met one or more of the above requirements when such students have compensating strengths in other required areas.

Note: Additional program-specific admission requirements are listed with each program description.

Procedures for Admission to Basic Teaching Credential Preparation Programs

The Credentials office provides information regarding standards and dates for application to programs in the School of Education.

  1. Apply for admission directly to the Credentials office, School of Education. Application packets and additional information may be obtained from the Credentials office, Stevenson 3007.
  2. Submit to the Credentials office two official transcripts from each college/university attended. (Check with the office of admissions and records regarding additional official transcripts required for admission to the university.)
  3. Submit official CBEST results.
  4. Submit verification of supervised field experience.
  5. Submit three letters of recommendation.

Continuation in Basic Teaching Credential Preparation Programs

  1. During the first semester, all candidates must:
    1. Provide evidence from a physician of a clear chest x-ray or negative TB skin test; and
    2. Apply for a Certificate of Clearance. Application forms are available in the Credentials office.
  2. All education students are required to meet each semester with an education advisor.
  3. Students must successfully complete all requirements for each program phase including coursework, fieldwork, and student teaching before entering the subsequent phase.
  4. Students are expected to make continuous progress toward the credential while maintaining a grade point average of 3.00 in professional education courses after entry into the credential program. Incomplete grades (I) and grades of D or F in professional education courses must be removed and statutory requirements met prior to continuing enrollment in courses.
  5. Candidates who must delay progress in the professional education program may file a written request with the program advisor for an extended program or for a leave of absence. A student returning from a program delay will be subject to the screening requirements in effect at the time of reentry and will be accommodated as space allows. Any student on academic probation is subject to automatic disqualification as a credential candidate.

BCLAD Prerequisites and Co-Requisites

Corequisite: 6 units of foreign language (college level)
EDUC 417 School and Society (3)
MATH 300 Elementary Number Systems, Probability and Statistics (4)
CALS 456 Bilingual/Cross-Cultural Education (4)
CALS 451 Chicano/Latino Humanities (4)
Upper-Division Target Culture Course (3-4)
Total prerequiste units for BCLCAD: 18-19

Spanish Language Proficiency Requirement: Candidate must take the Spanish language exam given by the BCLAD program. Candidate must have an entry score of 2.0 FSI for admission. Note: the candidate must have a score of 3.0 FSI to exit the program. Contact the Project PITA/BECA office (707) 664-4428) regarding the Culture and Language Examination.

Project PITA Preservice Inservice Training Alliance

Project PITA Preservice Inservice Training Alliance is a comprehensive support program for new or emergency credentialed teachers and for teachers seeking CLAD or BCLAD certification.

The Project consists of two programs:

The preservice program requires that a currently employed teacher (most likely with an emergency credential) be enrolled in a Sonoma State University teaching credential program. Project PITA Preservice Inservice Training Alliance will pay up to full tuition fees for teachers meeting this requirement. Additionally, the project will provide training for PITA Preservice Inservice Training Alliance teachers, cooperating teachers, school administrators and university supervisors. The project's goal is to ensure its participants will receive excellent training and support.

The inservice program requires that a currently employed teacher be interested in obtaining CLAD or BCLAD certification. The project offers assistance with fees for CLAD/BCLAD training, including materials and examination costs. Project PITA Preservice Inservice Training Alliance participants will have access to CLAD/BCLAD training offered by the Bilingual Teacher Training Program administered by the Sonoma County Office of Education. This is one of the most successful training programs in the state.

PROJECT PITA PRESERVICE INSERVICE TRAINING ALLIANCE OFFERS:

  • Scholarships
  • Professional growth opportunities
  • Funding for substitute teachers to facilitate release time for Project participants
  • A community of fellow teachers, administrators and School of Education faculty
  • Resources for test preparation and test taking

Project BECA Bilingual Educator Career Advancement

Project BECA Bilingual Educator Career Advancement is an extensive support program for bilingual teacher candidates. This project has been established through a U.S. Department of Education Title VII grant in order to help meet the demand for bilingual teachers in the North Coast. Spearheaded by the School of Education at Sonoma State University and the Sonoma County Office of Education, Project BECA Bilingual Educator Career Advancement proposes to increase the quality and quantity of bilingual teachers through a comprehensive support system.

Project BECA's main objective is to increase the quality and quantity of bilingual teachers. In order to ensure the success of BCLAD teacher candidates, Project BECA Bilingual Educator Career Advancement offers academic, financial and professional support.

BECA BILINGUAL EDUCATOR CAREER ADVANCEMENT SCHOLARS ARE ELIGIBLE TO RECEIVE:

  • Foreign Transcript Evaluation
  • Assistance with Course Work
  • Tuition Assistance
  • Stipends
  • Child Care Stipends
  • Test Preparation Assistance (BCLAD, CLAD, MSAT, CBEST)
  • Spanish Language Development

Contact Information
Project BECA/PITA
Stevenson Hall 3021
(707) 664-4428

Multiple Subject BCLAD Program

Phase I
EDUC 460 Learning and Teaching in Elementary School (3)
EDUC 461 Multicultural Education and the Social Sciences (4)
EDUC 410 Second Language Pedagogy (4)

Phase II
EDUC 462B Teaching Reading/Language Arts in the Elementary School (4) (taught in Spanish for BCLAD students)
EDUC 472 Teaching Math in the Elementary School (2)
EDUC 473 Teaching Science in the Elementary School (2)
EDUC 476 Participant Observation (3)

Phase III
EDUC 480B Integrated Curriculum in the Elementary School (3) (taught in Spanish for BCLAD students)
EDUC 482 Student Teaching (12)


Total units for the prgram: 37

II. Master of Arts in Education with a concentration in Reading and Language

The M.A. degree program in education offers courses of graduate study to prepare candidates for specialized teaching and for curriculum and instructional leadership responsibilities in the schools. The program, a minimum of 30 units, provides for areas of concentration in educational administration; curriculum, teaching and learning; early childhood education; reading and language; and special education.

Students must maintain a 3.00 grade point average in all coursework in the approved master's degree program as well as all coursework takensubsequent to admission in conditionally classified standing.

For more information, refer to the section on Graduate Degrees on page 35. The graduate director is John Kornfeld. The Reading and Language program advisor is Paul Crowley.

Prerequisites for the Reading and Language Graduate Programs (M.A.; Reading Certificate; Reading and Language Arts Specialist Credential)

  • A bachelor's degree from an accredited institution.
  • A cumulative upper-division and graduate grade point average of at least 3.00 and a grade point average of at least 3.00 for previous work in education.

Procedures for Applying to the Graduate Program

  • Apply to the University as a graduate student.
  • Apply to the School of Education.
  • Submit the following:
  • A professional-goals statement.
  • One set of official transcripts.
  • One photocopy of a valid basic teaching credential (except where otherwise noted).
  • Two letters of reference attesting to academic potential and professional promise (except where otherwise noted).

Requirements for M.A. Advancement to Candidacy

  • Completion of M.A. core courses EDUC 570 and 571, and of M.A. concentrations.
  • Presentation and approval of program portfolio.
  • Filing of Advancement to Candidacy form with School of Education graduate director.

Requirements for the M.A. Degree in Education

Graduate students must complete all requirements as established by the School of Education, the SSU Graduate Studies Council and the University, to include:
  • Completion of an approved program consisting of a minimum of 30 units of upper-division and 500-level courses, as follows:
    • at least one-half of the units in 500-level courses.
    • not more than 9 semester units of transfer and/or extension credit.
    • filing of an Advancement for Candidacy form that verifies approval of the program portfolio, verifies writing proficiency and describes the culminating project.

Completion and final approval of EDUC 572, 573 or 598/599 and completion and final approval of a cognate, individualized examination, thesis, curriculum project, or creative project.

All M.A. requirements listed above must be completed within seven years (14 semesters) of the initiation of graduate study.

The M.A. Program Portfolio

Throughout their entire M.A. course of study, graduate students work on a reflective program portfolio. The portfolio addresses the followingquestions: Who am I in the context of the profession of education at this time in my personal and professional history and in the cultural context in which I live and learn? Under what conditions do I feel respected and engaged as a learner? What ideas have shaped and will impact my practice and my beliefs about education? What ideas, issues, and topics interest me as possible areas for in-depth inquiry? Students will construct and review their program portfolios as an ongoing requirement for the graduate core courses. Presentation of the program portfolio is required for advancement to candidacy.

Reading and Language Master's Degree Program

The reading and language concentration is designed to prepare teachers for specialized teaching of reading and language arts and for curriculum and instructional leadership in the field of language and literacy. Required coursework focuses on the nature of literacy development and the improvement of classroom curriculum and methods that emphasize the relationship of reading to other language and concept learning.

Program Coursework: 30 - 36 units

Reding/Language Core Courses (9 units)

 EDRL 507 Research in Language and Literacy  3
 EDRL 521A Language Development in First and Second Languages  3
 EDRL 522 Assessment and Teaching in Reading and Language Arts  3

Education core Courses(9-12 units)

 EDUC 570 The Reflective Educator  3
 EDUC 571 Research Paradigms in Education  3

Thesis Path (30-unit course of study, including 18 units in the student's program area, 12 units of core courses):
EDUC 598 Developing a Thesis/Project (3)
EDUC 599 Supervised Research for Thesis/Project (3)

Cognate Path (36-unit course of study, including 18 units in the student's program area, 9 units of core courses, and a 9-unit cognate course of study):
EDUC 572 Supervised Study for the Cognate Project (3)

Individualized Exam Path (33-unit course of study, including 18 units in the student's program area, 9 units of core courses, and 6 units of elective courses):
EDUC 573 Supervised Study for the Individualized Examination (3)

Supporting Coursework(9 units)

The M.A. in reading/language education allows you to take 9 elective units (three courses, typically) in the reading/language project or in other approved areas, such as bilingual education, curriculum, ESL and early childhood education.

If you have attended the California Reading and Literature Project Summer Institute or if you would be interested in doing so after enrolling in the program, 3 credit units can be applied to the M.A. in reading/language.

Students who wish to pursue a Reading Certificate and Reading/Language Arts Specialist Credential, and an M.A. degree in reading and language education may complete the programs concurrently.

Pathways to Program Completion

The M.A. program of study requires 30-36 semester units of coursework, depending on the M.A. in Education pathway a student selects. There are three pathways to program completion, including the thesis/project, cognate, and individualized examination. We encourage students to become knowledgeable about each of the pathways in order to pursue a program of study that meets their professional goals within their preferred style of learning.

In all three pathways, graduate students take 18 units in the program area of concentration and at least 6 units (EDUC 570 and 571) of M.A. core courses. All M.A. students work with a three-member committee, and most closely with the committee chair, to complete a culminating activity which is presented to the committee in a public forum. In addition to these points in common, there are distinct differences among the three pathways to program completion, as described below.

Thesis/Project

The thesis/project pathway is a 30-unit course of study, including 18 units in students' program area of concentration and 12 units of core courses (EDUC 570, 571, 598, and 599). In order to prepare for the thesis/project, students must take Education 598 (Developing a Thesis/Project) and 599 (Supervised Study for the Thesis/Project) as their final two courses in the M.A. program.

The thesis is a written product of a systematic study of a significant problem in education. The project is a written document describing a significant undertaking appropriate to education. The thesis/project option requires an extensive write-up, including an in-depth literature review. Students must also present their thesis/project to their three-member committee in a public forum. Examples of a thesis investigation include process/product research, correlational study, action research, ethnographic study, historical study, or theoretical study. Examples of a project include curriculum design, professional development for educators, program design, performance piece, or creative project.

Cognate

The cognate pathway is a 36-unit course of study, including 18 units in the students' program area of concentration, 9 units of core courses (EDUC 570, 571, and 572), and a 9-unit cognate course of study. The cognate course of study is a group of courses which students choose in consultation with a faculty advisor and/or committee chair, and that allows students to examine areas of interest related to their M.A. concentration. In order to work with their three-member committee on the cognate project, students must take Education 572 (Supervised Study for the Cognate Project) as their final course in the M.A. program.

The cognate project (e.g., portfolio, professional article, video, website, field-based product) is a significant undertaking through which students connect their cognate course of study with the M.A. core courses, program concentration, and/or work in the field. The project may address, for example, implications of the cognate course of study for the classroom, reflections on new teaching practices, response to scholarly research, or educational theory. A written reflection must be included in the project. Students must present the completed project to their three-member committee in a public forum.

Individualized Examination

The individualized examination pathway is a 33-unit course of study, including 18 units in the students' program area of concentration, 9 units of core courses (EDUC 570, 571, and 573), and 6 units of elective courses. For the electives, students, in consultation with their faculty advisor and/or committee chair, choose courses which allow them to examine areas of interest related to the M.A. concentration and to focus on the examination area(s) of study that they have chosen. In order to work with their three-member committee as they prepare for the examination, students must take Education 573 (Supervised Study for the Individualized Examination) as their final course in the M.A. program.

The individualized examination addresses areas of study identified by the student in consultation with the student's examination committee. The exam is written by the student's committee (a chair plus two other members) and consists of four questions related to the student's area(s) of study, including one question submitted in advance to the committee by the student. When the student is ready to take the examination, he/she receives the questions from the chair and has 72 hours to complete the written examination and to return it to the chair. Within two weeks of completing the examination, the student must meet with the committee for an oral examination in which the committee asks follow-up questions for clarification and elaboration.

III. Reading Certificate Program

The Reading Certificate prepares individuals to take a leadership role at the school site and emphasizes work with students who experience difficulties with reading. Reading Certificate teachers assist and support other classroom teachers, assess student progress, and monitor student achievement while providing instruction and intervention. They also play a consultative role in materials and program selection at the district and may take leadership responsibility within the more limited realm of the school site. The Certificate is the first part of a continuum of services to students and teachers in the area of reading and language arts. Teachers completing the Reading Certificate Program are encouraged to continue to earn the Reading and Language Arts Specialist Credential (currently under review by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing).

Program Prerquiste
a basic teaching credential is required for admission

Reading Certificate Prerequisite
three years teaching experience is required for awarding of Reading Certificate

Block One: developing a Personal Model of Literacy


Spring

Integrated investigation of Literacy Research/Theories/Beliefs/Practices aimed at developing a working understanding and reflective stance for each of these themes through in-depth case studies of English language learners. The breadth and depth of the themes ensure that candidates examine and understand the nature of fluent reading and comprehension, assessment approaches, planning and delivery of reading intervention and instruction, and best practices in assisting classroom teachers of English only and English language learners. Focused field experiences and assessment that lead to purposeful reading instruction permeate this block.
 EDRL 521A Language Development in First and Second Languages  3
 EDRL 522 Assessment and Teaching in Reading and Language Arts   3

On-Campus Reading and Writing Clinic


SummerPublic school students attend SSU for reading improvement and enrichment in a supervised clinical setting. Certificate candidates assess and teach these students, deepening knowledge of reading and language arts assessment, intervention and instructional strategies, in collaboration with and under the supervision of clinical faculty, university faculty and Reading and Language Arts Specialist candidates.
 EDRL 527A Clinical Field Experience in Reading and Language Arts  3

Block Two: developing a Professional Model of Literacy


FallInvestigation of Research/Theories/Beliefs/Practices in teaching reading and writing, designed to produce a professional knowledge base for each of these themes. Candidates develop a comprehensive set of strategies for promoting fluent reading and comprehension, planning and delivery of literature-based reading curriculum, and assessment-based intervention and instruction. Candidates are prepared for literacy and language arts leadership roles at the school level.
 EDRL 521B Reading and Language Arts in First and Second Languages  3
 EDRL 524 Literature and Literacy   3

IV. Reading and Language Arts Specialist Credential

All teacher preparation institutions in California were provided with new program standards for the Reading and Language Arts Specialist Credential by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. The newly designed SSU Specialist program is currently under review by the Commission. Contact Paul Crowley, Reading and Language Program Advisor, for information regarding the status of the program's approval.

The Reading and Language Arts Specialist Credential prepares candidates to work with students in various settings and to perform multiple roles, including assisting and supporting classroom teachers in the appropriate assessment and instruction of reading and writing for all students across all grade levels. The specialist may also:

  • provide direct services to students to help them attain independence in reading and writing, including comprehension and critical thinking skills.
  • do demonstration teaching and curriculum planning for groups and individuals.
  • organize and manage language arts programs at the district or school level.
  • assess teaching strategies to assist teachers in creating a literacy learning environment.
  • provide leadership in materials, textbook, and program selection at the district or school level.
  • plan and conduct inservice professional development activities for teachers, administrators, school board members, parents, and members of the community at the district or school level.

Credential prerequisite requirements: All Reading Certificate courses including certificate prerequisites

Block Three: Developing Research-Based Literacy Theory


Spring

Continued investigation of Research/Theories/Beliefs/Practices aimed at developing thorough understanding and a reflective stance for each theme. Candidates examine and critique research-based curricular practices and assessment approaches in professional literature and field settings. Topics include fluent reading, comprehension, planning, and delivery of literacy curriculum, intervention strategies, best practices in assisting classroom teachers, and assessment that leads to purposeful reading and writing instruction.
EDRL 523 Curriculum Development in Language and Literacy (3)
EDRL 529 Evaluation in Reading and Language Arts Programs (3)

On-Campus Reading and Writing Clinic


SummerPublic school students attend SSU for reading improvement and enrichment in a supervised clinical setting. Specialist Credential candidates supervise Certificate candidates in assessment and intervention strategies with the students with diverse reading abilities and backgrounds. Candidates also demonstrate effective teaching of struggling readers, conduct clinical conferences and review clinical reports, and monitor overall clinical experiences.EDRL 527B Advanced Clinical Field Experience in Reading and Language Arts 3

Block Four: Developing Professional Literacy Models


Fall

Advanced and intensive investigation of Research/Theory/Beliefs/Practice. All coursework and field experiences are aimed at articulating a professional knowledge base for each theme. Candidates critique research into reading and writing for diverse student populations, conduct their own literacy studies, and hone their leadership skills for assisting classroom teachers and other educational professionals with literacy education through focused field experiences.
 EDRL 507 Research in Language and Literacy  3
 EDRL 525 Leadership and Policy in Literacy Programs  3

Multiple Subject Courses (EDMS)

410 Second Language Pedagogy (4) / Fall, Spring

With the increasing numbers of children from different linguistic and cultural backgrounds in schools, preparing to teach and foster development of language and literacy among all children in the classroom is a major responsibility. The course reviews first- and second-language acquisition and major second-language teaching methodologies in relation to language development in school settings. The purpose of this course is to help students discover a diversity of approaches, methods, materials, and media they can use to help all students in our culturally and linguistically diverse classrooms become active, engaged and independent learners. Attention is given to the integrated development of all language skills within the context of the elementary school curriculum. Grade only. Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

460 Learning and Teaching in the Elementary School (3) / Fall, Spring

Survey of theories of teaching and learning and the social, physical, emotional and cognitive development of students. The course focuses on the application of this knowledge, and includes research-based strategies and systems for effective teaching, classroom management and discipline, and development of instructional objectives, lesson plans, and teaching strategies. Prerequisite: admission to the Multiple Subject Elementary Credential program. Grade only.

461 Multicultural Education and the Social Sciences (4) / Fall, Spring

Examination of cultural, ethnic, racial, linguistic, gender, family structure and individual diversity in the classroom, and the root causes of current classroom and school problems. The course includes an introduction to educational ethnography, and provides a basis for understanding the relationship of educational research and classroom teaching in terms of culture, teaching, and learning. Alternative methods and materials integrating social studies with other elementary school subjects are examined and evaluated; teacher candidates learn how to develop their own program of study in the social sciences. Students use techniques of ethnographic methods to observe and analyze classrooms during the observational field placement of the class (30 hours) during the last half of the semester. Prerequisite: admission to the Multiple Subject Credential program. Grade only.

462B Teaching Reading/Language Arts in the Elementary School (Bilingual) (4) / Fall

Principles, methods and materials for a comprehensive, balanced approach to instruction in reading and language arts. Includes current views of reading theory, current issues in reading/language pedagogy, strategies for literacy instruction, to include information, research-based instructional methodologies consistent with the A-M list of reading skills outlined in the California Reading Initiative, evaluating student progress, and the history of American literacy. Emphasis is on the interrelationships between language systems and the cognitive, affective and social aspects of literacy acquisition and development; issues of cultural and language diversity, bilingualism and dialect variation are integral to the course. Teacher candidates spend a minimum of 30 clock hours in an elementary classroom during reading/language arts instruction; no more than 4-5 hours are completed in one week; includes weekly meetings for discussion and feedback. Prerequisites: admission to a Multiple Subject Elementary Credential program and completion of, or concurrent enrollment in, EDMS 476. Grade only. Early childhood education prerequisite: admission to the Multiple Subject/Early Childhood Education Credential program. BCLAD candidates must see the BCLAD advisor to take the BCLAD section.

472 Teaching Mathematics in the Elementary School (2) / Fall, Spring

Goals, principles, methods and materials for teaching mathematics in elementary schools. This course aims to increase students' own confidence and appreciation of elementary mathematics, to broaden and deepen their understanding of current trends and issues in mathematics education, and to help them develop techniques and activities for teaching mathematics effectively to children. Coursework includes many teaching and learning activities, as well as reading and discussion. Grade only. Prerequisites: MATH 300. Open to students in the BCLAD Credential program; students must enroll concurrently in EDUC 476.

473 Teaching Science in the Elementary School (2) / Fall, Spring

Philosophy, goals and techniques of elementary science teaching. Emphasis is on theories and methods of teaching for conceptual understanding, development of science process skills, and development of positive attitudes toward science and learning. Major concepts of science are reviewed, with emphasis on representing them in ways that are effective with elementary students. Active, hands-on methods of teaching are presented throughout the course. Grade only. Open to students in the Multiple Subject Credential CLAD programs.

480B Integrated Curriculum in the Elementary School (Bilingual) (3) / Fall, Spring

Focuses on various ways of organizing disciplined-based knowledge that give elementary students a coherent educational experience. Teacher candidates are encouraged to use lessons, materials, and unit plans written for this class in their concurrent student teaching experience. Grade only. Prerequisites: admission to the Multiple Subject Elementary Credential program; completion of Phase I should be taken in Phase II of program or can be taken in Phase III concurrently with EDUC 482. BCLAD candidates must see their advisor in order to take the BCLAD section.

482 Student Teaching and Seminar (12) Fall, Spring

Students spend four full days per week in an elementary Spanish bilingual classroom for a full semester. During the last two weeks of this experience, teacher candidates teach and are responsible for the entire curriculum and school day. Students meet with their supervisors every week to focus on existing problems related to student teachers' classroom experience. Cr/NC only. Prerequisites: admission to a Multiple Subject CLAD Elementary Credential program; completion of Phase I and Phase II coursework, field experiences and Participant Observation.

Education Courses (EDUC) 417 School and Society (3) / Fall, Spring

A critical examination of current issues in today's schools and future directions in education through the perspectives of history, philosophy, sociology, anthropology, and the politics of education. Content includes: trends, movements and issues of the development of our present-day school systems and current educational practice; development of an individual philosophy of education through examination and evaluation of educational philosophies from early Greek through modern/post-modern thought; analysis of American society and its effect on the functioning of schools; the role of explicit and implicit cultural assumptions in educational contexts; and the influence of federal, state and local governing agencies, the knowledge industry and special-interest groups on education. Grade only.

476 Participant Observation (3) / Fall, Spring

Students spend three mornings per week in an elementary Spanish bilingual classroom for 15 weeks observing, assisting in daily classroom routines and activities, and teaching. Includes observation and teaching in small and large groups, and requires the student teacher to plan and carry out two weeks of instruction in two subject areas in which at least one of the subjects is reading or mathematics. Students meet with their university supervisors regularly. Cr/NC only. Prerequisites: admission to the BCLAD Credential Program.

490 Selected Topics in Education (1-4) / Fall, Spring

A course designed according to the interest of a particular faculty member, providing opportunities for diversification in content and reading. Grade only.

495 Special Studies (1-4) / Fall, Spring

Independent study designed in consultation with an instructor. Grade only. Prerequisites: successful completion of at least two courses in the School of Education, and submission of a completed SSU special studies form with required approvals during the first week of classes.

500 Advanced Selected Topics in Education (1-4) Fall, Spring

A graduate course designed according to the interest of a particular faculty member, providing opportunities for diversification in content and reading. Grade only.

570 The Reflective Educator (3) / Fall, Spring

This is the first in a series of three graduate core courses in the School of Education. Students will take this course at the beginning of the M.A. program. The focus of this course is on philosophical, historical, social and psychological perspectives in education. Students will examine these perspectives while being encouraged to examine and reflect upon their own professional practices in education. In this course, students will begin to construct a reflective program portfolio that they will continue to modify throughout their M.A. program. The portfolio is intended to be cumulative throughout the graduate core courses. The portfolio addresses the following questions: Who am I in the context of the profession of education at this time in my personal and professional history and in the cultural context in which I live and learn? Under what conditions do I feel respected and engaged as a learner? What ideas have shaped and will impact my practice and my beliefs about education? What ideas, issues and topics interest me as possible areas for in-depth inquiry? Students will construct and review their program portfolios as an ongoing requirement for the graduate core courses. Presentation of the program portfolio is required for advancement to candidacy. Grade only. Prerequisite: admission to M.A. in education program.

571 Research Paradigms in Education (3) Fall, Spring

This is the second in the series of three graduate core courses, and is designed to be taken midway in the master of arts degree program. This course focuses on students as critical consumers of research and includes among its goals the development of skills in the analysis and critique of educational research. The course addresses research and field needs of practicing educators as opposed to the needs of professional researchers and serves to acquaint students with basic principles and techniques of educational research. It also provides students with an opportunity to integrate knowledge of these principles through analyses of action research projects that may serve as the foundation for the culminating master of arts degree project. Grade only. Prerequisite: EDUC 570.

572 Supervised Study for the Cognate Project (3)

This supervised independent study provides students with guidance in the completion of their cognate project. Under the direction of the committee chair, and in consultation with all committee members, students will complete (1) a project that synthesizes their cognate coursework and connects it to their M.A. Program Concentration, and (2) a scholarly reflection which accompanies the project. Following completion of the project, students will participate in a formal presentation of their work to faculty and colleagues. Cr/NC. Prerequisite: advancement to candidacy.

573 Supervised Study for the Individualized Examination (3)

This supervised independent study provides students with guidance in preparing for the individualized examination. Under the direction of the committee chair, and in consultation with all committee members, each student will determine the areas of study to be addressed in the examination, choose relevant readings, and conduct a concentrated study of those areas to prepare for the exam. Following completion of the written exam, students will take an oral exam in which committee members ask follow-up questions to the written responses. Cr/NC. Prerequisite: advancement to candidacy.

578 Project Continuation (1-3) / Fall, Spring

Designed for students working on their thesis or master's project but who have otherwise completed all graduate coursework toward their degree. This course cannot be applied toward the minimum number of units needed for completion of the master's degree. Prerequisite: permission of the graduate director. Cr/NC only.

595 Special Studies (1-4) / Fall, Spring

Independent study designed in consultation with an instructor. Grade only. Prerequisite: Students must complete the standard SSU form and secure the required approvals during the first week of classes.

598 Developing a Thesis/Project (3) / Fall, Spring

This is the final course in the graduate core courses in education. This course develops students' abilities to carry out a thesis or project and provides basic information for planning and implementing the master of arts degree proposal. The main goal is to provide students with knowledge to begin their thesis or project. Time is provided students to assess progress in the program and to complete portfolio development. Grade only. Prerequisite: completion of all M.A. coursework or taken in final semester of M.A. coursework.

599 Supervised Research for Thesis/Project (3) Fall, Spring

Supervised Research provides students with guidance in the completion of their research project. Under the direction of the committee chair, and in consultation with all committee members, students will complete the thesis or project that was developed in EDUC 598 Developing a Thesis/Project. Following completion of the research project, students will participate in a formal presentation of their work to faculty and colleagues. Cr/NC. Prerequisite: completion of EDUC 598. Advancement to candidacy approved.

Reading and Language Courses (EDRL)

507 Research in Language and Literacy (3) / Fall

Critical analysis, evaluation, exploration, and generation of literacy research. Students are immersed in the research traditions of reading, writing, language, and literacy, and read from classic and cutting-edge studies along with current literacy research, theory, and opinion. Students examine and construct connections among theory, research, and practice and inquire into relationships among language, literacy, social context, and culture.

521A Language Development in First and Second Languages (3) / Spring

Research and theory in oral and written language development in home and subsequent languages, and the relationship between literacy learning and teaching. Special attention is given to factors that promote concept development and confident effective language use. Attention to the structure of the English language, including phonology, orthography, morphology, syntax and semantics. Contributions from many fields, (e.g., psycholinguistics, sociolinguistics, anthropology, and developmental psychology) provide perspectives for analysis of language acquisition and learning, evaluation of current educational practice, and planning for effective classroom experiences. Transfer strategies from primary language reading skills into English language reading skills are presented based on the tenets of effective language acquisition

521B Reading and Language Arts in First and Second Languages (3) / Fall

Research, theory, and practice focused on written language development in home and subsequent languages. Students read, discuss and critique theory and research into processes of reading and writing, including the theoretical foundation of assessment approaches for documenting reading and language arts progress and the relationship between literacy learning and teaching. Topics include sociolinguistic and psycholinguistic factors in reading and writing development, assessment-based reading and writing instruction for English language learners and struggling readers, emergent literacy at all ages, comprehension and study strategies, instructional planning, and evaluation and intervention approaches. Students develop a comprehensive set of strategies for promoting fluent reading, confident writing, and purposeful conversation for diverse student populations.

522 Assessment and Teaching in Reading and Language Arts (3) / Spring

Principles and procedures for literacy and content assessment and teaching in classrooms with English language learners, as well as for design and selection of materials, methods and contexts for literacy and content learning for all students. Students develop assessment and instructional plans for an English language learner (their 521A case study student) and for small and whole groups of students with a range of reading abilities. Topics include differentiated approaches and methods specifically designed for a variety of purposes and groups, use of literature and informational texts, and instruction/intervention resources for sheltered English and SDAIE.

523 Curriculum Development in Language and Literacy (3) / Spring

Critical analysis and development of learning-centered language and literacy curriculum. Students conduct in-depth analysis of current research and theory in curriculum and teaching and of California State Department of Education curriculum documents. Field participation and observation and individual inquiry projects provide opportunities for evaluation of curricular engagements. Students evaluate and select print and electronic materials for instruction and intervention programs..

524 Literature and Literacy (3) / Fall

Literature as a way of knowing, the role of literature in the curriculum, and strategies for teaching literature, about literature, and with literature. Topics include selection and censorship of classroom materials, flexible grouping, fluency, reader response, text structure, story grammar, multicultural literature, online resources, and high interest, comprehensible selections for beginning, struggling, ELL, and successful readers. Students explore issues related to using high quality literature, both narrative and expository, in reading and language arts programs as they complete fieldwork assignments.

525 Leadership and Policy in Literacy Programs (3) Fall

Principles of designing, organizing, coordinating and evaluating P-12 reading and language programs. Investigations into decision-making and policies for teaching reading and writing, including current influences on program development such as cross-cultural and multilingual classrooms, testing, technology, and community involvement. Students develop their professional expertise in leadership, supervision, evaluation, staff development, advocacy, mediation, negotiation, and conflict resolution.

527A Clinical Field Experience in Reading and Language Arts (3) / Summer

Supervised practicum for Certificate candidates. In a Reading and Writing Workshop format, candidates work with K-12 students under the supervision of and in collaboration with clinical faculty and Reading and Language Arts Specialist Credential candidates. Certificate candidates are assigned to students based on the candidates' prior program coursework and professional background, in order to assure diversity of experience with readers and writers of varying ages and abilities. Certificate candidates conduct formal and informal assessments and plan instruction and intervention for students in the clinic. Based on assessment findings candidates collaborate in the delivery of appropriate instruction and interventions that utilize learners' strengths in order to address their needs. Candidates participate in clinical conferences and write reports in which they summarize and critique assessment findings and the success of the instruction. Opportunities will be available for candidates to work with beginning readers, struggling readers at different levels, English language learners, and successful readers and writers.

527B Advanced Clinical Field Experience in Reading and Language (3) / Summer

Supervised practicum for Reading and Language Arts Specialist Credential candidates. In a Reading and Writing Workshop format, Credential candidates supervise Certificate candidates as they work with K-12 students. In turn, Credential candidates are supervised by University and clinical faculty. In collaboration with clinical faculty and other Credential candidates, they assume leadership roles, overseeing all assessment and instructional practices of Certificate candidates and directing all clinic activities. Specialist Credential candidates play a major role in clinical conferences and in the preparation of clinical reports. They also work directly with students in the clinic, providing demonstration of appropriate assessment and intervention strategies and to extend their experience with readers and writers of varying ag


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