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Sonoma State University

ANTHROPOLOGY


Department Office
Stevenson Hall 2054
(707) 664-2312
www.sonoma.edu/anthropology

Department Chair
Richard J. Senghas

Administrative Coordinator
Cookie Galvan

Faculty
Karin L. Enstam / Biological Anthropology
Carolyn Epple / Medical and Cultural Anthropology
Adrian Praetzellis / Historical Archaeology
Margaret Purser / Historical Archaeology
*R. Thomas Rosin / Social Anthropology
Richard J. Senghas / Linguistic Anthropology
*Albert L. Wahrhaftig / Cultural Anthropology
John D. Wingard / Applied Anthropology
*Faculty Early Retirement Program

Course Plan / Sample Four-Year Program for Bachelor of Arts in Anthropology / Bachelor of Arts in Anthropology Special Emphasis / Anthropology Minor or Teaching Credential Preparation / Master of Arts in Cultural Resource Management / Individual Course Descriptions

Programs offered
Bachelor of Arts in Anthropology
Master of Arts in Cultural Resources Management
Minor in Anthropology
Teaching Credential Preparation
Special Emphasis B.A. in Anthropology
Advisory Plan in Human Development
Advisory Plan in Biological Anthropology
Advisory Plan in Medical Anthropology

Of all the human sciences, anthropology is the broadest. Anthropologists study how human beings have come to be as they are, a physically distinct species, communicating through language, adapted to every habitat on earth, and living an amazing variety of lives. As anthropologists have become increasingly engaged with the contemporary world, they have led in the development of a global focus on how culturally different peoples interact and how humans change their customary ways of life.

Anthropology consists of four (some would say five) subdisciplines:

  • Biological Anthropology deals with the evolution of the human body, mind, and behavior as inferred through study of fossils and comparisons with behavior of other primate species.
  • Archaeology examines our past ways of life through the interpretation of material remains, written records, and oral traditions.
  • Cultural Anthropology explores the diversity of existing human ways of life, how they work, how they change, and how they interrelate in the modern world.
  • Linguistic Anthropology examines the structure and diversity of language and related human communication systems.
  • Applied Anthropology emphasizes how the theories, techniques and methods of anthropology can be employed to facilitate stability or change and solve problems in real world situations.

For the members of Sonoma State University's anthropology faculty, research and teaching are inseparable, and the Anthropology Department encourages both graduate and undergraduate students to meet professional standards of achievement in their work and research. The faculty assists students in developing and executing individual research projects. Students often present the results of their work in professional meetings, juried research publications, and public documents.

Through training in anthropology students learn of many different cultures throughout the world, how they developed, the significance of their differences, and how they change. Students are thus equipped with a broad perspective for viewing both themselves and others.

Inevitably, students of anthropology face being asked what they can do with their degree. For professional anthropologists, many of whom are not academics in universities and research institutions, opportunities for employment in government, in the business world, in education, and in social service are surprisingly diverse. For example:

  • Cultural anthropologists helped the government of Venezuela to plan an entire new city in a previously little-occupied region. Working for Xerox, cultural anthropologists assist in product development by studying the problems office workers encounter when working with new equipment.
  • Archaeologists, while uncovering prehistoric cultivation systems, have suggested how techniques from the past may be re-employed in the present to achieve sustainable agricultural systems. Archaeologists are employed by a host of federal and state agencies charged with locating and preserving sites that contain information about our own prehistoric and historic past.
  • Biological anthropologists work in a variety of settings, including medical schools (as anatomists) and medical research facilities (as medical geneticists and physiologists), in crime laboratories (as forensic anthropologists and expert witnesses), and in zoos and nature conservancies (as keepers and students of primates).
  • Linguistic anthropologists are active and helpful in the design, evaluation, and implementation of curricula for teaching languages, whether to linguistic minorities who do not speak dominant languages, or to those whose linguistic capacities differ. In Nicaragua, the emergence of a new sign language helps us understand how innate human predispositions to acquire language combine with social and cultural factors to produce a new sign language used by Deaf Nicaraguans.
  • Medical anthropologists interview indigenous peoples on meanings of disease to improve communication and quality of care between traditional healers, Euro-western caregivers, and local care receivers. In major US urban areas, medical anthropologists have helped to create and document the effectiveness of needle exchange programs, reducing the spread of HIV/AIDS, while others have analyzed how stories of disease help individuals reconstruct their lives during and following a debilitating illness.
  • Applied anthropologists work for government agencies such as the National Park Service where their work gives voice to living peoples linked to the parks by tradition, deep historical attachment, subsistence use, or other aspects of their culture; others work for the National Marine Service where they assess the impacts of regulatory policies on fishing communities. Outside government, they work for private firms as in-house experts on social issues of the work place. Cultural anthropologists in many settings contribute to formulating policies, conducting research, and consulting with stakeholder groups.

At a more general level, students of anthropology acquire skill in the formulation of both theoretical and practical questions regarding human life, in collecting and organizing data on many levels of human behavior, and in constructing appropriate interpretations and generalizations based on well-thought-out procedures. The combination of knowledge about human ways of life, and training in analytic skills affords experiences that are crucial to any field dealing with human society and culture. This perspective is invaluable in preparing students for careers either in research professions or in vocations involving human services or planned change. Some of these are: cultural resources management, environmental planning, nursing, teaching, public health administration, business, public relations, law, community development, and international service.

The bachelor of arts in anthropology provides a balanced grounding in the theoretical approaches and the body of knowledge central to the discipline of anthropology. The general major may be modified through a special emphasis in the anthropology major, which provides students with an opportunity to design an individualized course of study emphasizing a particular subfield of anthropology. The minor in anthropology recognizes basic training in anthropology as an adjunct to a major in other subjects.

The department also offers a master of arts degree in cultural resources management. This is a professional field that involves the identification, evaluation, and preservation of cultural resources within legal and planning contexts. The primary objective of the master's program is to produce professionals competent in research design, and data collection and analysis, as well as the legal mandates of North American CRM. Program graduates work as historic preservation specialists, environmental planners, and archaeologists for government agencies and as private consultants.

Anthropology Department Resources

The department's Anthropological Studies Center provides students with the opportunity to participate in prehistoric and historical archaeology, geoarchaeology, the conservation and analysis of archaeological materials, local and architectural history, and public outreach in the context of grant and contract aided research projects. The center has more than 5,000 square feet of archaeological laboratory and curation facilities and is supported by a professional staff. Internships are offered annually. Other resources include an active Anthropology Club, a physical anthropology laboratory, an ethnographic and primate film library, Human Relations Area Files, and computer services.

The department's anthropology laboratory has a computer configured for linguistic applications, including the analysis and transcription of audio and video data. In addition, the department's human skeletal material and fossil cast collections (which include cranial and post-cranial material) are also housed in the anthropology lab and are regularly used in biological anthropology courses. This lab is often used for methods courses.

Anthropology Scholarships

The faculty of the department contributes to an anthropology scholarship, awarded each academic year to an undergraduate major on the basis of academic achievement and commitment to the discipline. For further details, contact the department office. The David Fredrickson Research Grant is a competitive award funded by the staff of the Anthropological Studies Center and is offered annually to graduate students in Cultural Resources Management. Contact the ASC for details. The University offers another anthropology scholarship, the Conni Miller Memorial Scholarship. ASC also funds an annual Scholarship in Cultural Resources Management. Contact the Scholarship Office for information.

Bachelor of Arts in Anthropology

Degree Requirements Units
General education 51
Major core requirements 28-30
Major electives 10-12
General electives 29
Total units needed for graduation 120

Note: A maximum of 12 transfer units in lower-division courses can be used to complete the 40-unit anthropology major options and advisory plans.

Major Core Requirements

Complete two of these introductory courses during the first year in the major:

ANTH 201 Introduction to Biological Anthropology (Fall/Spring) 3
ANTH 202 Introduction to Archaeology (Fall, even years) 3
ANTH 203 Introduction to Cultural Anthropology (Fall / Spring) 3
Complete the following synthesis courses during the first year of upper-division instruction:
ANTH 300 Nature, Culture, and Theory: The Growth of Anthropology (Spring) 4
ANTH 342 Organization of Societies (Fall) 4
Complete one of the following five courses in biological anthropology*: (4)
ANTH 301 Human Fossils and Evolution 4
ANTH 302 Biological Basis of Sex Differences 4
ANTH 305 Topics in Biological Anthropology 4
ANTH 414 Primate Behavior Laboratory 4
ANTH 415 Forensic Anthropology Methods 4
Complete one of the following six courses in archaeology*: (4)
ANTH 322 Historical Archaeology 4
ANTH 325 World Prehistory 4
ANTH 326 Topics in Archaeology 4
ANTH 392 Research in California Prehistory 4
ANTH 420/421 Archaeology Methods: Lecture 2-3
and Archaeology Methods: Laboratory 1
ANTH 424 Belize Valley Archaeological Reconnaissance Project 4
Complete one of the following seventeen courses in cultural analysis and theory or ethnographic areas*: (4)
ANTH 345 Nature and Society: Topics in Anthropology and the Environment 4
ANTH 346 Schooling in Cultural Context 4
ANTH 349 Art in Cultural Context 4
ANTH 352 Perspectives on Culture Change 4
ANTH 354 Quest for the Other: Tourism and Culture 4
ANTH 358 Topics in Sociocultural Anthropology 4
ANTH 360 Progress or Oppression: Anthropological Perspectives on Development 4
ANTH 362 Transnational California 4
ANTH 365 Ethnographies of Regional Culture(s) 4
ANTH 370 Cultures, Illness, and Healing 4
ANTH 372 Talk about Feeling Sick: Stories and Metaphors of Illness 4
ANTH 376 Plagues: Social Responses to Disease 4
ANTH 378 Constructing the Body: Skin, Genders, and Technologies 4
ANTH 441 Laboratory in Ethnographic Field Methods 4
ANTH 444 Methods in Material Culture Studies 4
ANTH 451 The Uses of Anthropology 4
ANTH 454 Ethnographic Field School 4
Complete one of the following six courses in linguistic anthropology*: (4)
ANTH 380 Language, Culture, and Society 4
ANTH 382 Language Change 4
ANTH 383 Language in Sociopolitical Context 4
ANTH 384 Topics in Linguistic Anthropology 4
ANTH 386 Sign Languages and Signing Communities 4
ANTH 480 Studies of Language Use 4
Complete one of the following ten courses in anthropological methods**: (3-4)
ANTH 411 Topics in Computer-Assisted Anthropological Research 1-3
ANTH 414 Primate Behavior Laboratory 4
ANTH 415 Forensic Anthropology Methods 4
ANTH 420/421 Archaeology Methods: Lecture 2-3
and Archaeology Methods: Laboratory 1
ANTH 424 Belize Valley Archaeological Reconnaissance Project 4
ANTH 441 Laboratory in Ethnographic Field Methods 4
ANTH 444 Methods in Material Culture Studies 4
ANTH 451 The Uses of Anthropology 4
ANTH 454 Ethnographic Field School 4
ANTH 480 Studies of Language Use 4

Total units in major core 28-30
* At least one such course offered each semester.
** Methods courses are also listed under topical areas. For such courses, students may count the course as EITHER a methods course OR an area course, but not both.

Major Electives

To complete the 40-unit requirement for the major, students must choose the remaining units from other anthropology courses. Anthropology units in internship and the community involvement program may be included.
Total units in major electives: 9-12
Total units in the major: 40

Sample Four-year Program for Bachelor of Arts in Anthropology

In this sample study plan, we either recommend specific general education courses or suggest select courses. In the latter case, we introduce them by "e.g." In the major we require an upper-division (u.d.) course in each of the distinct subfields of anthropology, which are archaeology (AR), biological anthropology (BA), linguistic anthropology (LA), and ethnography or cultural analysis (ECA). Specific offerings vary each semester, some occur on alternate years. This sequence and selection of specific courses are suggestive; please see your advisor each semester.

Freshman Year: 32 Units

Fall Semester (16 Units) Spring Semester (16 Units)
ENGL 101 (A2) (3) UNIV 200 (A1) (3)
BIOL 115 (B2) (3) PHIL 101 (A3) (3)
BIOL115L (1) GE (D3) (3)
GE (C1), e.g., Art 212/ ANTH 201 (B3) (3)
THAR 100 (3) University Elective (4)
ANTH 203 (D1) (3)  
University Elective (3)  

Sophomore Year: 30 Units

Fall Semester (15 Units) Spring Semester (15 Units)
GEOL 105 (B1) (3) LING 200 (D5) (3)
Math, e.g., 165 (B4) (4) ANTH 341 (D2) (3)
GE (C2) (3-4) GE (D4) (3)
University Elective (4) GE (C4) (3)
  University Elective (3)

Junior Year: 30 Units

Fall Semester (15 Units) Spring Semester (15 Units)
ANTH 342 (4) ANTH 300 (4)
U.D. Anth AR/BA/LA/ECA (4) U.D. ANTH AR/BA/LA/ECA (4)
U.D. ANTH AR/BA/LA/ECA (4) U.D. ANTH AR/BA/LA/ECA (4)
U.D. GE (3) GE (C3) e.g., NAMS 346/
  SOC 431 (3-4)

Senior Year: minimum of 28 Units

Fall Semester (15-23 Units) Spring Semester (11-16 Units)
U.D. GE (3-4) ANTH Electives(3-4)
ANTH Elect., e.g., 396/490/491(4) ANTH Electives (3-4)
ANTH Special Studies (1-4) ANTH Methods (4)
ANTH Internship (1-4) ANTH Special Studies/Internship (1-4)
GE (E) e.g., ANTH 318/340 (3-4)  
University Elective (3)  

Total units: 120

Bachelor of Arts in Anthropology with a Special Emphasis

Degree Requirements Units
General education 51
Major core requirements 18
Special emphasis courses 12-22
Supporting courses 3-15
General electives 38-53
Total units needed for the degree 120

The special emphasis B.A. in anthropology is designed for students whose academic and/or professional aims are not satisfied by the department's existing degree program. The purpose of the special emphasis major is to provide students with an opportunity to design, in consultation with an advisor, an individualized course of study emphasizing a particular subfield of anthropology, leading to a bachelor of arts degree. In this respect, the program provides students with the option to pursue special intellectual directions in anthropology and to respond to career and employment potentialities.

For example, such directions include linguistic anthropology; applied economic and ecological anthropology; prehistory; human biology; and human development. The special emphasis major consists of 40 units selected from three course areas: 18 units in core courses; 12 to 19 units in special emphasis courses; and 3 to 10 units in supporting courses. All courses are selected in consultation with and approved by a faculty advisor.

Procedures

Students should carefully review their reasons for pursuing the special emphasis major, identify a special interest, and make a tentative selection of courses (application forms are available from the department office). Students should then select appropriate advisors, who will review the proposed program. Upon approval by the advisor, the program will be submitted to the department for action. Special Emphasis Proposals must be submitted to the department for approval prior to the student's senior year. Consultation with the faculty advisor is mandatory. Any changes to an authorized course of study must meet with the advisor's approval.

Course Requirements

Requirements consist of

  1. core courses,
  2. special emphasis courses within anthropology, and
  3. supporting courses from outside anthropology.

Core Courses (18 Units)

Two of the following introductory courses: (6 units)
ANTH 201 Introduction to Biological Anthropology (3)
ANTH 202 Introduction to Archaeology (3)
ANTH 203 Introduction to Cultural Anthropology (3)

History and Theory (4 units)

ANTH 300 Nature, Culture and Theory: The Growth of Anthropology (4)

Cultural Analysis and Theory (4 units)

ANTH 342 Organization of Societies (4)

Methods (4 units)

Select 4 units from among the nine courses in anthropological methods listed under major core requirements, on preceding page.

Special Emphasis Courses (12 units minimum)

The special emphasis component of the anthropology major must include a minimum of 12 units of special emphasis anthropology courses.

Supporting Courses (3 units minimum)

The supporting course component of the anthropology major must include a minimum of 3 units of courses taken outside the major.

Bachelor of Arts in Anthropology: Advisory Plans

Advisory Plan in Human Development

This advisory plan, a 40 unit major including a minimum of 11 units of supporting subjects, is designed for students interested in public service concerned with program planning, administration, education, and/or care of infants, children, adolescents, or the elderly in multi-cultural or cross-cultural settings. It gives students a broad background in anthropological, sociological, and psychological perspectives on human development across the life span in its various familial, social, and cultural contexts. (See "Advisory Plan in Human Development", available in the Anthropology Department office, for course requirements).

Advisory Plan in Biological Anthropology

This advisory plan, a 40 unit major including 10 units of supporting subjects, is designed for students interested in M.A. or Ph.D. level graduate work in biological anthropology including work in forensic anthropology. The biology courses constitute the core requirements for a minor in biology, other courses in biology should be selected in accord with more specific interests. (See "Advisory Plan in Biological Anthropology", available in the Anthropology Department office, for course requirements).

Advisory Plan in Medical Anthropology

This advisory plan entails a 40 unit major including a minimum of 13 units of supporting subjects. The BA emphasis complements health professions programs, and provides a basis for work in health planning, public health, community organizing, and cross-cultural public service and non-profit agencies. The plan of study also prepares students for graduate work in cultural and medical anthropology, cultural studies, and health professions. (See "Advisory Plan in Medical Anthropology", available in the Anthropology Department office, for course requirements.)

Minor in Anthropology

The anthropology minor consists of 20 units chosen by the student in consultation with a faculty advisor.

Teaching Credential Preparation

The Anthropology Department participates in a teacher preparation program that certifies the subject matter competence in social sciences required for entry into a teaching credential program and exempts the student from taking the Praxis II Subject Assessment Examination in the social sciences. Anthropology majors interested in seeking a general elementary credential may demonstrate subject matter competence by passing the Praxis II Multiple Subject Assessment for Teachers. For more information, contact Miriam Hutchins, School of Social Sciences, 707 664-2409.

Master of Arts in Cultural Resources Management

The master of arts in cultural resources management involves the identification, evaluation, and preservation of cultural resources, as mandated by cultural resources legislation and guided by scientific standards within the planning process. A goal of the master's program in cultural resources management is to produce professionals who are competent in the methods and techniques appropriate for filling cultural resources management and related positions, and who have the theoretical background necessary for research design and data collection and analysis.

Persons with an MA in CRM will be qualified to hold positions within the United States and its territories. Some individuals will also be qualified to serve outside of the United States in an advisory capacity in establishing and managing cultural resources management programs within environmental protection and preservation contexts of other nations.

The CRM program emphasizes:

1. Experience in developing projects and programs in cultural resources management.

2. Experience in conducting analyses of archaeological, linguistic, and sociocultural data for purposes of assisting public and private sectors in the implementation of environmental protection and historic preservation legislation.

3. Training in the professional traditions of inquiry within anthropology and history to enable the student to assess the research significance of archaeological and ethnohistoric resources.

4. Experience with anthropological techniques of field and laboratory analysis, and archival and museum preparation.

5. Experience with existing cultural resources management data-keeping facilities.

Students in the program, under the supervision of a primary faculty advisor, develop a plan of study and thesis project that reflects their special interest in cultural resources management. In addition, students are encouraged to present the results of their work and research in professional meetings, research publications, and public documents.

Facilities and Faculty

The department's Anthropological Studies Center houses an archaeology laboratory and a cultural resources management facility. ASC maintains collections of artifacts, archaeological site records and maps, photographs, manuscripts and tapes, and a specialized research library. The Anthropological Studies Center web site can be found at www.sonoma.edu/projects/asc/. The Northwest Information Center, an adjunct of the State Office of Historic Preservation, manages historical records, resources, reports and maps; supplies historical resources information to the private and public sectors; and compiles and provides a referral list of qualified historical resources consultants. In addition to archaeologists and other anthropologists, participating faculty in the CRM program include historians, biologists, geographers, soil scientists, and geologists.

Requirements for the Degree

The design of the course of study as a 2 1/2-year program presumes that students are full time and not working. Experience with the program so far indicates that working students cannot successfully carry full graduate loads; consequently, it takes three years or more for working students to complete our program of study.

ANTH 500 Proseminar 4
HIST* 501 Seminar in Culture, Society and Policy Analysis 4
ANTH 502 Archaeology: History and Theory 3
ANTH 503 Seminar in Cultural Resources Management 3
ANTH** 596/597 Internships 3
ANTH 599A/B Thesis 4
Supporting Courses 9
Total units in the CRM degree 30

* Prerequisite: HIST 472 (History of California to 1913).

** Internships are decided upon by discussion between the student and his or her advisor. Students will normally take both on-campus and off-campus internships. On-campus internships are available at the Cultural Resources Facility, the Interpretive and Outreach Services Office, the Northwest Information Center, and the Archaeological Collections Facility and Ethnography Lab. Off-campus agencies include the State Office of Historic Preservation, the National Park Service, the Sonoma County Museum, and many others.

Admission to the Program

Applications must be submitted separately in the fall to the Anthropology Department and to the Office of Admissions and Records, for possible acceptance into the program the following academic year. Consult with the program's graduate coordinator for departmental requirements and submissions, as updated in the fact sheet, Admission to the Cultural Resources Management Program in Conditionally Classified Status. While archaeology is a focus, the program emphasizes CRM as an interdisciplinary profession. Students with degrees in history, geography, and planning, as well as anthropology, are frequently accepted.

Anthropology Courses (ANTH)

Classes are offered in the semesters indicated. Please see the Schedule of Classes for most current information and faculty teaching assignments.

201 Introduction to Biological Anthropology (3) Fall, Spring

An introduction to the evolutionary biology of human and nonhuman primates; evolutionary perspectives on form and function, behavior, population, and social structure. Focused on reconstructing human evolution and explaining human adaptations. Satisfies GE, category B3 (Specific Emphasis in Natural Sciences). Completion of, or concurrent enrollment in, BIOL 115 is recommended. CAN ANTH 2.

202 Introduction to Archaeology (3) Fall, even years

An introduction to archaeology as a method of inquiry, the course seeks to answer the question "How do archaeologists know what they know?" Topics include: history of archaeology, how archaeologists get a date (chronology), field and laboratory methods, relationship between method and theory, and "scientific" and humanistic approaches to the interpretation of data.

203 Introduction to Cultural Anthropology (3) Fall, Spring

Examination of the anthropological approach to the study of human behavior. Exploration of human dependence on learned, socially transmitted behavior through consideration of ways of life in a broad range of societies. Satisfies GE, category D1 (Individual and Society). CAN ANTH 4.

Note: Upper-division standing is a prerequisite for 300-level and 400-level courses.

300 Nature, Culture, and Theory: The Growth of Anthropology (4) Spring

The nature of science, disciplinary inquiry, and the changing intellectual, institutional and material context of the development of anthropology in the modern world. Identification of significant issues, schools of thought and historic persons. Training in scholarly procedure, library research, bibliography, and professional format and style. Prerequisites: At least one of the following: ANTH 201, 202, 203, or consent of instructor. (ANTH 342 recommended.)

301 Human Fossils and Evolution (4) Fall, odd years

In this course we review 1) the processes of speciation and adaptive radiation; 2) the principles of taxonomic classification of species into higher level groupings; 3) the geological time scale and principles of geologic dating of fossils. Using this background, we review the fossil evidence for human evolution in Africa, Asia, and Europe during the Pliocene-Pleistocene epochs. The fossil evidence is treated in temporal, geological, and geographic contexts. The primary focus is on the evolutionary implications of the fossil evidence for understanding the evolution of human bodies and behavior. Implications for the emergence of modern human races are also considered. Prerequisite: ANTH 201 for ANTH majors; ANTH 201 or BIOL 115 for non-majors, upper-division standing, or consent of instructor.

302 Biological Basis of Sex Differences (4) Spring, odd years

An examination of the current theoretical frameworks for explaining the evolution of sex differences in humans. Issues addressed will include: evolution of behavior; sex differences in morphology and behavior; ecological basis of sex differences; and sex differences in hominid evolution. Prerequisites: Anth 201 for ANTH majors; ANTH 201 or BIOL 115 for non-majors, upper-division standing, or consent of instructor.

305 Topics in Biological Anthropology (4) Occasional Offering

In-depth examination of a specific topic within biological anthropology. Topics vary with each offering and might include: history of biological anthropology, human behavioral ecology, biology of beauty, human variation, and evolution of human and/or primate social behavior. May be repeated for credit with permission of chair if topic differs. Prerequisites: for ANTH majors: Anth 201; for non-majors: ANTH 201 or BIOL 115, upper-division standing, or consent of instructor.

318 Human Development: Sex and the Life Cycle (3) Spring

An examination of developmental and evolutionary aspects of human reproductive biology and behavior from fetal through adult stages. Topics might include: sexual selection and life history perspectives on fetal sex differentiation; gender identity; sex role development; puberty and secondary sexual characteristics; and mate choice. Satisfies GE, category E (The Integrated Person). Prerequisite: for ANTH majors: ANTH 201; for non-majors: ANTH 201 or BIOL 115 and upper-division standing or consent of instructor. Occasionally cross-listed as HD 318.

322 Historical Archaeology (4) Spring, odd years

Introduction to the history, methods, and issues of the field of historical archaeology. Extensive readings provide examples of archaeology from post-1300s contexts in North America, Africa, Australia, and Latin America. Topics covered range from archaeological approaches to ethnic, gender, and class diversity to the study of large-scale processes of colonialism, industrialism, and global expansion. Broader issues discussed include the relationships between history and anthropology, the cross-cultural impact of European expansion, and the development of contemporary industrial societies. Prerequisites: upper-division standing or consent of instructor.

325 World Prehistory (4) Fall

A global survey of the human past from the earliest evidence of tool use to the emergence of stratified urban societies. Emphasis is on the complex diversity of past lifeways, including the reconstruction of human social and material life, the development of different social systems, and connections between societies and their physical environment. Limited discussion of relevant archaeological methods of reconstruction and analysis. Prerequisites: upper-division standing or consent of instructor.

326 Topics in Archaeology (4) Occasional Offering

Topics vary with each offering; may be repeated for credit with permission of chair. Possible topics might include: environmental adaptation in foraging groups, Holocene transition studies, early food production, emergent cultural complexity, technological innovation and change, regional studies, materials analysis, and geoarchaeology.

340 Living in a Pluralistic World (3) Fall, Spring

A comparative exploration of the major differences in human experience and life cycle on the level of the individual and the community in three major cultures of the world, one of which will be the culture(s) of the United States. Not applicable to the Cultural Analysis and Theory core requirement for the anthropology major. Satisfies upper-division GE, category E (The Integrated Person). Prerequisites: upper-division standing or consent of instructor.

341 Emergence of Civilizations (3) Fall, Spring

A presentation of theory and data related to the development and characteristic features of civilization. Such crucial issues as the domestication of plants and animals, the appearance of stratified societies, the emergence of urban life, the emergence of literacy and its implications for thought, and the emergence of the state will be addressed from a comparative perspective. The course takes a global approach to these topics, covering materials from Southwest Asia, Africa, the Mediterranean, and North, Central, and South America. Satisfies upper-division GE, category D2 (World History and Civilization). Prerequisites: upper-division standing or consent of instructor.

342 Organization of Societies (4) Fall

Intensive in-class discussions of ethnographies from several different cultures. Discussions will address key issues in cultural analysis, cross-cultural comparison and a holistic examination of culture. Students are encouraged to think critically and interpretively about the organization and practices of the cultures under review. Prerequisites: ANTH 203 or SOCI 201, upper-division standing or consent of instructor.

345 Nature and Society: Topics in Anthropology and the Environment (4) Fall, even years

Using the methods of anthropology this course will focus on the study of environmental issues. The course will cover the history of anthropological approaches to the environment. Selected topics such as human ecology, historical ecology, natural resource management, environmental justice, and environmentalism will be announced in the semester schedule. May be repeated for credit. Prerequisites: upper-division standing or consent of instructor.

346 Schooling in Cultural Context (4) Spring

Survey of learning and teaching modes that are characteristic of a variety of societies, both literate and preliterate. Focus is on the role of anthropological concepts and methods in the study of schooling as a cultural process. Attention is given to the relation between school culture and the maintenance of social order. Prerequisite: ANTH 203 or junior standing.

349 Art in Cultural Context (4) Fall

Examination of aesthetic, religious, sacred, supernatural and/or transcendent phenomena in terms of their relevance to the construction and communication of meaning and identity in human groups. Topics in the realm of expressive culture (e.g., art, play, ritual, drama, dance) will be selected each semester. Prerequisites: upper-division standing or consent of instructor.

352 Perspectives on Culture Change (4) Spring, odd years

This course explores the ways in which anthropologists study cultural change. The course will include a brief introduction to the theoretical frameworks developed in the discipline for studying past cultures, cultural change over time, and cultural dynamics in larger ecological and evolutionary systems. Possible topics may include: cultural contact studies, revitalization movements, long-term relationships between human groups and their diverse physical and social environments, emergence of social complexity, and colonial and post-colonial transformation of traditional societies. Topics will vary with each offering; may be repeated for credit with department chair's approval. Prerequisites: upper-division standing or consent of instructor.

354 Quest for the Other: Tourism and Culture (4) Fall, odd years

Examines the nature of tourism as a social and economic force. Different forms of tourism (eco, ethnic, heritage, mass, and elite) will be assessed both in terms of impacts on host cultures and their environments, as well as tourists themselves. Case studies illustrate the positive and negative impacts of tourism as an agent of culture change. Prerequisites: upper-division standing or consent of instructor.

358 Topics in Sociocultural Anthropology (4) Occasional Offering

In-depth examination of a specific topic within sociocultural anthropology. Topics vary with each offering and might include: medical anthropology, economic anthropology, political anthropology or issues such as homelessness, social capital, or community. May be repeated for credit if topics vary. Prerequisites: ANTH 203 or ANTH 340 and upper-division standing or consent of instructor.

360 Progress or Oppression: Anthropological Perspectives on Development (4) Spring, even years

Development anthropology studies problems of poverty, inequality, resource depletion, population pressure, and environmental deterioration. It evaluates "development" strategies pursued by national governments and international agencies from the perspective of local communities and indigenous peoples. Development anthropology also studies indigenous strategies of resistance, organization, resource management, and grassroots development. Prerequisites: upper-division standing or consent of instructor.

362 Transnational California (4) Fall, odd years

Issues and theories in transnationalism, with focus on the social organization, networks, and overseas extensions of immigrant groups, past and present, into the state of California; an effort to understand different models of and trajectories for pluralistic society; and how the diversity of races, ethnicities, and languages are organized globally, nationally, and provincially in the modern world. Students in anthropology and in California studies would apply community studies and network analyses to an understanding of our home region and state, study global processes linking localities around the world, and grasp the varied forms of pluralism emerging in different regions, societies, and nations. Prerequisite: ANTH 203 and upper-division standing or consent of instructor.

365 Ethnographies of Regional Culture(s) (4) Fall, Spring

By intensive study of one region in the world, students may examine the role, in the context of the world system, of peoples characteristic of this region. The dynamics of cultural persistence and change is reflected in the economy, social organization, and political ecology of family and community. Topics will vary with each offering. May be repeated for credit. Prerequisites: upper-division standing or consent of instructor.

370 Cultures, Illness, and Healing (4) Fall

This course ponders several questions central to the study of healing, wellness, and disease in one's own and other cultures. We explore what is meant by illness, explanatory models of disease, cross-cultural approaches to illness and healing, and how caregivers and care receivers often have different understandings and expectations of what disease and healing mean. We also explore current issues relating to health and illness, such as the influences of gender, globalization, and ethnicity in receiving and giving care, and current disease topics. Prerequisites: ANTH 203 and upper-division standing or consent of the instructor.

372 Talk about Feeling Sick: Stories and Metaphors of Illness (4) Spring, even years

Severely ill individuals often remake a sense of their lives and their selves through the stories, or narratives, they tell about the disease. These stories, in turn, reveal key metaphors about how a culture thinks about bodies, diseases, and healing. By using selected narratives, we obtain a glimpse into how individuals experience threatening diseases, and better grasp how metaphors of shame, mind/body duality, and healing shape disease experiences in several cultures. Prerequisites: ANTH 203 and upper-division standing or consent of instructor.

376 Plagues: Social Responses to Disease (4) Fall, even years

The course explores how social faultlines (such as biases based on gender, ethnicity, nationality, sexual practices, etc.) can shape constructions of risk and contagion during pandemics. Disease topics may include syphilis in Europe, Eurowestern invasion of the "New World," HIV/AIDS, and others. Prerequisites: ANTH 203 and upper-division standing or consent of instructor.

378 Constructing the Body: Skin, Genders, and Technologies (4) Fall, odd years

The course focuses on topics that help us gain new insights into how bodies are constructed cross-culturally, and what these constructions reveal about societies. Topics include embodiment theory, or how social disorder is manifest in individual bodies; how gender meanings and categories vary within and between cultures; and how current reproductive and other medical technologies reveal Euro-western ideologies. Topics may vary. Prerequisites: ANTH 203 and upper division standing or consent of instructor.

380 Language, Culture, and Society (4) Fall, Odd Years

A survey of basic issues concerning language as a part of human behavior; the symbolic nature of human communication; language as an interpretive model for culture; the social nature of language; the psychobiological bases of language and its acquisition; human and nonhuman communicative behavior; verbal and nonverbal communication. Prerequisite: ANTH 203 and upper-division standing, or consent of instructor.

382 Language Change (4) Spring, odd years

Survey of the distribution of the world's languages and language families, with discussion of language evolution, and areal, genetic, and typological classifications of languages. Study of the languages in contact and the processes of language change, with attention given to the history of writing systems and to writing as a source of evidence for the reconstruction of linguistic change. Prerequisite: ANTH 203 and upper-division standing, or consent of instructor.

383 Language in Sociopolitical Context (4) Fall

Focus on such topics as language attitudes, political power and linguistic equality, language and sociopolitical institutions, and language planning. Practical introduction to the insights offered by discourse analysis to the study of language varieties reflected in particular geographical regions, and by members of particular social classes/groups. Cross-listed as LING 432. Prerequisites: upper-division standing or consent of instructor.

384 Topics in Linguistic Anthropology (4) Occasional Offering

Topics may include: language acquisition; ideology; polic; revitalization; evolution; creolization and language contact; semantics and pragmatics; and sociolinguistics. Topics vary with each offering; may be repeated for credit. Prerequisite: senior standing or consent of instructor.

386 Sign Languages and Signing Communities (4) Spring, even years

Focus is on sign languages used in deaf communities around the world with an emphasis on three themes: (a) language as a system, (b) language in cultural and social context, and (c) language relationships in space and time. No previous knowledge of sign language is required. Prerequisites: LING 200 or upper division standing, or consent of instructor.

392 Research in California Prehistory (4) Spring

A seminar offering an introduction and review of a specific topic in California prehistory, emphasizing method and theory. Specific topics, such as regional culture history, subsistence and settlement, trade and exchange, prehistoric technology and osteology, will be announced in the semester schedule. May be repeated for credit. Prerequisites: upper-division standing or consent of instructor.

395 Community Involvement Program (1-3) Fall, Spring

An experience involving the application of anthropological method and theory to community service work. Requirements: Approval of a project of anthropological relevance, a minimum of 30 hours per unit of credit in the actual working situation, regular consultation with a faculty sponsor, and a paper to be determined by the student and faculty member in charge. Prerequisites: upper-division standing, major status and consent of instructor.

396 Experimental Courses (1-3)

399 Student-Initiated Course (1-3) / Fall and/or Spring

Student-initiated and -instructed courses on topics that enrich or extend current departmental offerings. Cr/NC only.

400 Anthropology Praxis (1-3) / Fall and/or Spring

Supervision and assessment of curriculum development and application for students in instructional or faculty/adjunct roles. May be repeated once for credit.

411 Topics in Computer-Assisted Anthropological Research (1-3) Occasional Offering

Instruction in specialized computer software for recording and analysis of data on human behavior and application of computer techniques to student and student/faculty research projects. Topics will vary from semester to semester. Course may be repeated for credit. Prerequisites: familiarity with basic computer procedures, consent of instructor, and upper-division standing.

414 Primate Behavior Laboratory (4) Spring, Even Years

Combined lecture/laboratory course for students interested in studying primate behavior. Course will include an in depth survey of the primates, emphasizing one or more of the following topics: socioecology, social organization, behavioral ecology, evolution of primate behavior. Students will also learn methods used in studying, describing, and analyzing primate behavior. Laboratory consists of direct observations of local fauna and captive primates at Bay Area Zoos. Prerequisites: ANTH 201 for ANTH majors; ANTH 201 or BIOL 115 for non-majors and upper-division standing or consent of instructor.

415 Forensic Anthropology Methods (4) Fall, even years

Combined lecture/laboratory course for students interested in the principles and techniques used in the application of forensic anthropology. Topics covered in this course will include estimating time since death, determining age, sex, stature, and ancestry, and identifying the effects of trauma and pathology on bones. Examination of forensic anthropology case studies. Prerequisites: ANTH 201 for ANTH majors; ANTH 201 or BIOL 115 for non-majors, upper-division standing or consent of instructor.

420 Archaeology Methods: Lecture (2-3) Spring

Basic methods of archaeological reconnaissance, excavation, and laboratory analysis. Class time is divided between lecture/discussions, survey and excavation on local archaeological sites, and processing and analyzing excavated collections of artifacts. Prerequisites: concurrent enrollment in ANTH 421 and upper-division standing or consent of instructor.

421 Archaeology Methods: Laboratory (1) Spring
Prerequisite: concurrent enrollment in ANTH 420.

424 Belize Valley Archaeological Reconnaissance Project (4)

A field school designed to introduce undergraduate students to archaeological fieldwork in the Maya lowlands of Belize. The project has a regional focus with a principal objective of studying the changes in settlement patterns and site relationships over time. Specific site focus and particular techniques taught may change from season to season. The curriculum focuses on instruction in archaeological field practice including excavation, data recording, artifact processing and mapping. A particular focus of the project is the use of Global Positioning System, remote sensing, and Geographic Information Systems in archaeological analysis. The field school is offered in two four-week sessions. The first session typically begins the first Sunday in June and the second session typically begins the first Sunday in July. Sonoma State University is responsible for the instructional component of the field school. BVAR in Belize provides room, weekday board, and travel necessary to the project within Belize. Students pay a fee directly to BVAR for these services. This fee is subject to change. May be repeated for credit.

441 Laboratory in Ethnographic Field Methods (4) Fall

Critical examination of field methods and research designs in selected areas of anthropology; major trends in contemporary anthropological research as a preparation for applied research. Topics include: problem formulation; research design; basic data gathering techniques and strategies; quantitative and qualitative data analysis; and report writing. May be repeated once for credit. Prerequisite: ANTH 203 and upper-division standing or consent of instructor.

444 Methods in Material Culture Studies (4) Fall, odd years

An interdisciplinary examination of the objects, structures, technologies, and built environments human beings have created and used. Students will compare theoretical and methodological approaches from anthropology, archaeology, folklore, art history, vernacular architecture, and the history of technology. Emphasis will be placed on the role of material culture in social interaction and communication, and the variability of material life cross-culturally and over time. Field methods training in material culture studies across a range of disciplines, including anthropology, vernacular architecture, history of technology, art history and decorative arts, and folklife. Emphasis on techniques of identifying, recording, and analyzing a wide range of material culture categories. Prerequisites: upper-division standing or consent of instructor.

451 The Uses of Anthropology (4) Spring

This is an applied research course designed to link theory, field research, data collection, and service learning in the local community. This will include research design, data collection and analysis, and final report preparation and presentation. Other topics covered include: historic overview of the development of applied anthropology; the uses and roles of anthropology outside academia; survey of professional practice including ethical considerations; state of the job market; techniques for career preparation; and issues of generalization vs. specialization. Prerequisite: ANTH 201 or 203, upper-division standing or consent of instructor.

454 Ethnographic Field School (4) Summer

A field school designed to help students develop their ethnographic field work skills, especially rapid appraisal techniques in an applied setting. Students will learn how to design and carry out a research project utilizing such skills as participant observation, interviewing, and data analysis. Students will be required to write a report based on their research and experiences. Contact department for more information. May be repeated for credit. Prerequisites: upper-division standing or consent of instructor.

480 Studies of Language Use (4) Fall, even years

Application of methods and procedures used in the investigation of communication in natural contexts. Topics include: research ethics; problem formation; research design; basic data gathering techniques and strategies (with an emphasis on linguistic approaches); quantitative and qualitative data analysis; and report writing. May be repeated once for credit. Prerequisites: upper-division standing or consent of instructor.

490 Topical Seminars in Anthropology (1-4) Occasional Offering

May be repeated for credit if topic differs. Prerequisite: senior standing or consent of instructor.

491 Working Seminar (1) Fall, Spring

Prerequisite: Upper-division status. May be repeated twice for credit.

495 Special Studies (1-4) Fall, Spring

During the first week of the semester, students interested in special studies in anthropology must submit a written proposal and an outline of projected work to a faculty sponsor for approval. Each unit of credit requires a minimum of 45 hours of work per semester (3 hours per unit per week), including regular consultation with an evaluation by the faculty member in charge. Prerequisite: ANTH 201 or 203; or an appropriate upper-division course in anthropology; or an upper-division course relevant to the proposed topic from another discipline.

496 Agency Internships (1-3) Fall, Spring

Students in the intern program have an opportunity to apply anthropological theory and methods to a variety of situations in public and private agencies. Internships require faculty approval, a minimum of 45 hours of work per unit per semester, including regular consultation with the faculty sponsor. While these internships are usually overseen by supervisors in off-campus agencies who report to faculty supervisors, opportunities in field archaeology and archaeological collections management are regularly available on campus at the Anthropological Studies Center. Cr/NC only. May be repeated for credit. Prerequisites: upper-division standing or consent of instructor.

496A Internship in Archaeology (2-3) Spring

Students will team with staff of SSU's Anthropological Studies Center to perform, for example, pre-field research, recognize and record archaeological sites, use GPS equipment, make computer-generated maps, and complete State record forms. Activities will vary depending on available projects. Internships require a minimum of 45 hours of work per semester per unit, including regular consultation with faculty sponsor. Cr/NC only. Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

497 Anthropology Internships (1-3) Fall, Spring

Students in the intern program have an opportunity to apply anthropological theory and methods to a variety of situations in public and private agencies. Internships require faculty approval, and a minimum of 45 hours of work per unit per semester, including regular consultation with, and evaluation by, the faculty sponsor. Cr/NC only. May be repeated for credit.

Graduate Courses

500 Proseminar (4) Fall

Introduction to research methodology in the social sciences; research design and implementation; use of library and archival materials; editorial review of writing; and guide to preparation of professional anthropological papers. Prerequisite: admission into Cultural Resources Management Program or consent of instructor.

502 Archaeology: History and Theory (3) Spring, even years

The rise of theoretical archaeology, with emphasis on the range of theoretical approaches taken by archaeologists and the nature of archaeological problem solving in theory and practice. Prerequisite: graduate status or consent of instructor.

503 Seminar in Cultural Resources Management (3) Fall, odd years

Who owns the past and who has the right to manage it? Review of legislation pertinent to the inventory, evaluation, and treatment of archaeological sites, historic buildings, and places that are important to Native Americans and others. Emphasis is placed on process of evaluation according to legal guidelines including CEQA, the Section 106 Process, and the National Register of Historic Places. Prerequisite: graduate standing or consent of instructor.

578 Project Continuation (1-3) Fall, Spring

Designed for students working on their thesis or master's project but who have otherwise completed all graduate coursework toward their degree. This course cannot be applied toward the minimum number of units needed for completion of the master's degree.
Prerequisite: permission of the graduate coordinator. Cr/NC only.

590 Advanced Seminars in Anthropology (1-3) Fall, Spring

In-depth consideration of specific anthropological, applied anthropology, or anthropologically related topics. Topics will vary from semester to semester. Prerequisite: graduate standing or consent of instructor.

592 Special Topics in CRM (2) Fall, even years

A seminar designed to address topics of current and timely interest in the field of cultural resources management. Course format will showcase a series of guest lectures, and CRM faculty will alternate as course organizers. Course may be taken twice for credit. Cr/NC only. Prerequisite: ANTH 500 or concurrent enrollment in ANTH 500.

595 Special Studies (1-4) Fall, Spring

During the first week of the semester, students interested in special studies in anthropology must submit a written proposal and an outline of projected work to a faculty sponsor for approval. Each unit of credit requires a minimum of 45 hours of work per semester, which includes regular consultation with, and evaluation by, the faculty member in charge. Prerequisites: graduate standing and consent of supervising instructor and department chair.

596 Agency Internships (1-3) Fall, Spring

Students will have an opportunity to apply anthropological theory and methods and/or cultural resources management procedures as interns with public and private agencies. Internships require faculty approval, and a minimum of 45 hours of work per unit per semester, including regular consultation with the faculty sponsor. This internship is usually overseen by supervisors in off-campus agencies who report to faculty supervisors. Cr/NC only. May be repeated for credit.

596A Internship in Archaeology (2-3) / Spring

Students will team with staff of SSU's Anthropological Studies Center to perform, for example, pre-field research, recognize and record archaeological sites, use GPS equipment, make computer-generated maps, and complete state record forms. Activities will vary depending on available projects. Internships require a minimum of 45 hours of work per semester per unit, including regular consultation with faculty sponsor. Cr/NC only. Prerequisite: graduate standing and consent of instructor.

596B Internship in Cultural Resources Management (2-3) / Fall

Students will team with staff of SSU's Anthropological Studies Center to get intensive, hands-on experience in carrying out CRM projects, including: responding to requests for proposals, assessing the legal context of their work, budgeting, field logistics, cultural resources inventory, mapping, and report writing. Internships require a minimum of 45 hours of work per semester per unit, including regular consultation with faculty sponsor. Cr/NC only. Prerequisite: graduate standing and consent of instructor.

596C Internship in Information Management (2-3) Fall, Spring

Students will team with staff of the Northwest Information Center to get intensive instruction in and experience with a variety of archival and research-based information, and a range of data management techniques relevant to current practices in cultural resources management and historic preservation in the regulatory context. Internships require a minimum of 45 hours of work per semester per unit, including regular consultation with faculty sponsor. Cr/NC only. Prerequisite: graduate standing and consent of instructor.

597 Anthropology Internships (1-3) Fall, Spring

Students will have an opportunity to apply anthropological theory and methods and/or cultural resources management procedures as interns with public and private agencies. Internships require faculty approval, and a minimum of 45 hours of work per unit per semester, including regular consultation with and evaluation by the faculty sponsor. Cr/NC only. May be repeated for credit. Prerequisite: graduate standing and consent of instructor.

598 Teaching Assistant in Anthropology (1-3) Fall and/or Spring

Provides experience by assisting the instructor in an anthropology course. Open only to advanced students for specific anthropology courses approved by the department. Prerequisites: graduate standing and consent of instructor.

599A/B Thesis (2, 2) Fall, Spring

Planning and execution of a research program culminating in the completion of a thesis (4 units maximum for 599A plus B). Prerequisite: filing an Advancement to Candidacy form, which requires completion of a thesis prospectus in Special Studies 595 (1) and formation of the student's graduate committee.