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Sonoma State University

HISTORY


Department Office
Stevenson Hall 2070
(707) 664-2313
www.sonoma.edu/history

Department Chair
Judith Abbott

Administrative Coordinator
Julie Wood

Faculty
Judith Abbott / Medieval Europe and Rome
Stephen Bittner/Russia, Soviet Union, Eastern Europe
Randall A. Dodgen / Asia and the Pacific Basin
Steve Estes/ Modern United States History
Mary Halavais / Early Modern Europe, Spain and Latin America
Michelle Jolly / U.S. before 1900, Western U.S., California, Women's History
*Robert A. Karlsrud / U.S. Social History, Modern U.S. History
Kathleen Noonan / Britain and Ireland, Early Modern Europe, Colonial America
William Clay Poe / Ancient Near East, Archaeology and Egyptology, Religious Ideas
*Clarice Stasz / Social History, Post-Civil War U.S. History and Historical Methods
Theresa Alfaro Velcamp / Mexican, Latin American, Borderlands History
*D. Anthony White / Latin American History

*Faculty Early Retirement Program

Course Plan / Minor in History / Sample Four-Year Plan for Bachelor of Arts in History / Teaching Credential Preparation / Master of Arts in History / Individual Course Descriptions

Programs offered
Bachelor of Arts in History
Master of Arts in History
Minor in History
Teaching Credential Preparation

History is an integrative discipline that studies both our collective and our individual pasts. It is holistic because it is involved with humanity in all of its dimensions, interests, and activities, from the economic and political to the psychological and cultural. Thus, the study of history encourages students to reflect upon and analyze the interrelationship of ideas and material circumstances and of individual and group behavior as revealed in a wide range of human institutions and activities. The study of the ways in which humanity has organized itself, interacted, and explained its existence not only promotes the development of a historical perspective on the present but also provides a means of assessing the potential for change. The study of other cultures and their histories also fosters the development of a broader world view as well as other perspectives on one's own culture. In addition, the study of history provides insight into the sources of one's thoughts, aspirations, and behavior, as well as the appreciation of a shared cultural tradition.

The history major is designed both to provide the basis for an excellent liberal arts education and to meet the needs of individual students. Within the specific requirements of the major, students receive basic instruction in the history of their own country as well as that of other cultures. They are also introduced to methods of historical inquiry, to different philosophies of history, and to historical writing. Beyond these requirements, students may arrange coursework that meets their needs and interests. Course offerings provide opportunities to study selected areas and periods as well as individually designed research projects.

A history major's skills in historical analysis, writing, and research are highly useful in a variety of careers and professions. In addition to preparation for teaching and graduate work within the discipline of history, the history major provides an excellent background for many postbaccalaureate programs, including law, business, library science, and cultural resource management. Public history is a growing field, with careers in government, museums, and historic parks.

Students who plan to pursue graduate work or a teaching career are advised to diversify their studies rather than concentrate on any single geographic area or nation-state. Those who plan extensive graduate study are encouraged to take foreign language courses and to consider the history honors program. Credential candidates should consider securing classroom experience in a community-involvement program. A wide variety of internships exist in local museums, historical societies, businesses, and schools.

Bachelor of Arts in History

The B.A. in history is a 40-unit program that students plan in consultation with a departmental advisor. Courses graded Cr/NC are not applicable to the history major, except in the cases of HIST 497 Internships and HIST 496 History Journal, where 3 units of CR/NC are accepted.

Degree Requirements Units
General education 51
Major requirements 40
General electives 29
Total units needed for graduation 120

Major Core Requirements

HIST 201 Foundations of World Civilization (3)*
(3 units applied to GE, category D2)
3-4
HIST 202 Development of the Modern World* 3-4
HIST 251 The United States to 1877 (3)
(3 units applied to American Institutions)
3
HIST 252 The United States Since 1865, or HIST 445, 446, 468, 470, 477 3-4
HIST 498 Senior Seminar 4
Total units in the major core 16-18
*History majors may replace HIST 201 with HIST 303, 335, 339, 400, 401 OR replace HIST 202 with HIST 337, 342, 382, 383, 411, 412. Either HIST 201 or HIST 202 MUST be taken.

Major Electives

To finish the major, students must complete additional units in history to total 40 units. These units must include one upper-division course in European history and one course on an area of the world other than the United States or Europe (upper division substitute for HIST 201/202 may count for this when appropriate.) Three (3) units of electives can be lower division, the remaining 20-21 units must be upper division.

Total units in major electives 22-24
Total units in the major 40

History Honors Program

Eligible* students must have completed the major core requirements, except for the Senior Seminar, to earn the honors degree: 16

HIST 498 (or designated Senior Seminar) 4
HIST 499 Honors Seminar (to complete an Honors Thesis) 4
Total units needed for history honors degree 44

* Eligibility for the history honors degree:

1. A 3.50 GPA at Sonoma State University or overall.
2. Demonstrated proficiency in a foreign language.

Minor in History

Courses graded Cr/NC are not applicable to the history minor. For a minor in history, students must complete the following 20 units:

Minor Core Requirements

 HIST 201 Foundations of World Civilization (3 units applied to GE, category D2) (3)*  
HIST 202 Development of the Modern World* 3-4
HIST 251 The United States to 1877 (3 units applied to American Institutions) (3)*  

HIST 252 The United States Since 1865 OR HIST 445, 446, 468, 470, or 477

3-4
Total units in the minor core 6-8

* History minors may replace HIST 201 with HIST 303, 335, 339, 400, 401 OR replace HIST 202 with HIST 337, 342, 382, 383, 411, 412. Either HIST 201 or HIST 202 MUST be taken.

Minor Electives

The additional 12-14 units in the history minor should include three upper-division courses in a single field (United States, European, Latin American, or a non-Western region.)

Total units in minor electives 12-14
Total units in minor 20

Sample Four-Year Program for Bachelor of Arts in History

Freshman Year: 30 Units

Fall Semester (15 Units) Spring Semester (15 Units)
GE PHIL 101 (A3) (3) GE HIST 201 (3)*
GE ENGL 101 (A2) (3)* GE HIST 251 (D3) (3)*
GE Electives (B1, C1, C2) (9) GE Electives (A1, B2, B4) (9)

Sophomore Year: 31 Units

Fall Semester (15 Units) Spring Semester (16 Units)
GE HIST 202 (3)* GE Electives (6)
GE HIST 252 (3)* Electives (including HIST) (10)
 GE Electives (C2, B3, D5) (9)

Junior Year: 30 Units

Fall Semester (16 Units) Spring Semester (14 Units)
HIST 391 (4) History Electives (8)
History Elective (4) UD GE (C4) (3)
UD GE (D4) (3) UD GE (C5) (3)
Electives (5)

Senior Year: 29 Units

Fall Semester (14 Units) Spring Semester (15 Units)
History Elective (8) HIST 498 (4)
Electives (6) Electives (11)
Total semester units 120

* ENGL 101 (or its equivalent) is a prerequisite for HIST 201, 202, 251, and 252.

Teaching Credential Preparation

The History Department participates in a teacher preparation program that certifies the subject matter competence in social studies required for entry into a teaching credential program and exempts the student from taking the Praxis II Subject Assessment Examination in the social sciences. See the Social Science Subject Matter Preparation Program for further information. History majors interested in seeking a general elementary credential may demonstrate subject matter competence by passing the Praxis II Multiple Subject Assessment for Teachers. For further information, contact Miriam Hutchins, School of Social Sciences, (707) 664-2409.

Master of Arts in History

Requirements for Admission

  1. B.A. degree from an accredited institution. Students with undergraduate majors in fields other than history will be required to complete prerequisites before entering the program.
  2. Grade point average of 3.00 or better in the undergraduate history major (and in previous graduate courses attempted) as evidenced by the transcripts furnished. Grade point average of 3.20 or better in history for non-majors.
  3. Completion of the general test Graduate Record Examination with scores acceptable to the departmental Graduate Studies Committee.
  4. Three letters of recommendation; completion of program application and personal statement; writing sample.
  5. Completion and acceptance of separate application for admission to the University (Office of Admissions and Records). GRE test scores required.
  6. Favorable recommendation for admission by the departmental Graduate Studies Committee after review of the complete file. This confers advancement to classified standing as a graduate student.

For more information, please refer to Graduate Degrees in the Degree Requirements section of this catalog.

Requirements for the M.A.

1. Advancement to candidacy form (M.A. in History) signed and submitted to graduate office.

2. Grade point average of 3.00 or better for all work attempted in graduate status and in all work approved as a part of the specific pattern of study. With the approval of the student's committee chair and the graduate advisor, a maximum of 9 units of postgraduate transfer or extension credit (or any combination of the two) may be included as part of the student's specific pattern of study. All courses are to be taken for letter grade.

3. All requirements for the M.A. degree in history, including language and conditional requirements stipulated at the time of admission to candidacy, must be satisfactorily completed within seven years from the time the first course is completed. Completion of requirements form must be signed and submitted to the graduate office.

4. With the approval of the student's committee chair and the departmental graduate advisor, the satisfactory completion of one of the following two options:

Master's Thesis Option

(chosen in consultation with committee chair):

Courses at the 300 or 400 level 15
Graduate courses at the 500 level (including two seminars) 9
HIST 599 Master's Degree Thesis Research 6
Total units required for the M.A. 30

Comprehensive Examination Option

(chosen in consultation with committee chair):

Courses at the 300 or 400 level 15
Graduate courses at the 500 level (including HIST 500 and 510) 9
HIST 598 Comprehensive Examination Reading 6
Total units required for the M.A. 30

History Courses (HIST)

Classes are offered in the semesters indicated. Please see the Schedule of Classes for most current information and faculty teaching assignments.

150 History: Credit by Examination (3) Fall, Spring

Challenge Examination. The state code requirement in world or U.S. history may be satisfied by passing the department's challenge examination.

201 Foundations of World Civilization (3) Fall, Spring

An introduction to the early, classical, and medieval civilizations that have most influenced the modern world. Developments (from prehistory to 1500 CE) include the Eastern traditions of India, China, and Japan; the world of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam; the classical Mediterranean civilizations; Africa; and the medieval and Renaissance cultures of the emerging West. Satisfies part of the Social Sciences Single Subject Waiver Program. Required of all history majors. Satisfies GE, category D2 (World History and Civilization). Prerequisite: ENGL 101.

202 Development of the Modern World (3) Fall, Spring

An introduction to modern and contemporary history from 1500 CE to the present. Developments include the impact of Western expansion on the Americas, Africa and Asia; the reaction of non-Western people to Western expansion; the growth of nationalism and the national state; the industrial and political revolutions of the 18th and 19th centuries; World Wars I and II; decolonization, the emergence of the superpowers and the end of the Cold War. Required of all history majors. Satisfies part of the Social Sciences Single Subject Waiver Program. Satisfies GE, category D2 (World History and Civilization). Prerequisite: ENGL 101.

241 History of the Americas to Independence (3)

A comparison of the English, Spanish, and Portuguese colonies in America, from the conquest to independence. Topics include: Native Americans; European background; colonial government; religion; economic policies; social relations; slavery; art and literature; independence movements; and nation building. Satisfies GE, category D3.

242 History of the Americas Since Independence (3)

A comparison of the development of the United States after independence with that of Latin America. Topics include: colonial legacies; political leadership; expansion and conflict; regionalism; economic development; reform and revolution; church and state; race relations; education, and inter-American relations. Satisfies GE, category D3.

251 History of the United States to 1877 (3) Fall, Spring

A general survey of the major developments in U.S. history from the European discovery and colonization of the Western Hemisphere through Reconstruction. Required of all history majors. Satisfies GE, category D3 (U.S. History), and the state code requirement in history. Satisfies part of the Social Science Single Subject Waiver Program. Prerequisite: ENGL 101. CAN HIST 8.

252 History of the United States Since 1865 (3) Fall, Spring

A general survey of the major developments in U.S. history from the end of Reconstruction to the present day. Satisfies GE, category D3 (U.S. History) and the state code requirement in history. Satisfies part of the Social Science Single Subject Waiver Program. Prerequisite: ENGL 101. CAN HIST 10.

303 The Ancient Near Eastern Texts (4)

Texts in translation from Mesopotamia, Egypt, Anatolia, Canaan, Ancient Israel, Mycenaean Greece, and Iran will be the sources for the construction of understandings of the cultures that created them. The course will focus on a careful analysis of the text as a foundation for the study of social and political organization, economics, family structure, and ideology. Texts will be selected from the earliest writings toward the end of the fourth millennium BCE to the period of the beginning of the Persian Empire late in the sixth century BCE.

335 Early China to 1500 (4)

This course is designed to introduce students to the intellectual, political, social, and economic traditions that helped make the sixteenth century Chinese state the greatest bureaucratic empire in the world. From the great intellectual efflorescence of the "100 School" period to the far-ranging ocean voyages of the eunuch admiral Zheng He, the course will examine a broad spectrum of topics, including folk religion, gender roles, imperial politics, medicine, art, and literature, among others. The relationship between social, economic, and political developments will be emphasized.

338 Early Japan to 1650 (4)

This course is designed to introduce students to the intellectual, political, social, and economic traditions that underlay the creation of the Japanese emperor system and the rise of warrior government. From the unique aristocratic culture of Heian Japan to the legendary conquests of Hideyoshi, the course will look at a broad range of topics, including religion, gender, politics, art, and philosophy. The course also examines the influence on Japan of Tang China and early modern Europe. The emphasis will be on the relationship between social, economic, political, and cultural forces.

339 Introduction to Latin America (4)

A study of the indigenous cultures of Latin America, the European conquest, the Spanish and Portuguese empires in America, and the struggles for independence in the nineteenth century. Topics include: political development, land and labor, religion, cultural values, slavery, gender and race relations, art and literature, and revolutionary movements.

342 Modern Latin America (4)

A study of the major political, economic, social, and cultural developments in Latin America since independence, with an emphasis on political movements in the 20th century, including revolutions in Mexico, Guatemala, Cuba and Nicaragua; socialism in Chile; peronismo in Argentina; modernization in Brazil. The role of the United States in Latin America and modern Latin American art and literature will also be emphasized.

349 Historical Themes (2-4)

Studies of particular themes, issues, and topics of special interest to general students as well as to majors.

350 California Environmental History (4)

The impact of human activity upon the California landscape. Topics include: Native American practices; the Russian fur trade; the Spanish hide and tallow trade; the Gold Rush; conservation and preservation movements; the rise of agribusiness; and the hydraulic society, along with North Bay related activities. This class is part of the "Visions of California" 9-unit upper-division GE module.

370 History Forum (1-4)

A semester lecture series on a specific theme or topic presented by members of the department, other SSU faculty, and guest speakers. May be audited. Open to the public.

371 Special Topics and Themes in European History (2-4)

Studies of particular themes, issues, and topics of special interest pertaining to European history.

372 Special Topics and Themes in Latin American History (4)

Studies of particular themes, issues, and topics of special interest pertaining to Latin American history.

375 Special Topics and Themes in American History (1-4)

Studies of particular themes, issues, and topics of special interest pertaining to American history.

376 Special Topics and Themes in World History (2-4)

Studies of particular themes, issues, and topics of special interest pertaining to world history.

380 20th Century World (3) / Fall, Spring

An exploration of the origins and development of 20th century ideas, institutions, and systems in global perspective. Forces that have united and divided the contemporary world community are examined: imperialism, science, democracy, communism, nationalism, militarism, racism, cultural traditionalism, and technological disparities. Fulfills part of the Social Science Single Subject Waiver Program requirement. Satisfies upper-division GE, category D2 (World History and Civilization).

382 The Mediterranean World, 1400-1700 (4)

A study of the Mediterranean region in the early modern era. The course considers economic, political, social, and cultural interaction in the region. Topics covered include the Ottoman Empire, Iberian expansion into North Africa, the Spanish reconquista, and naval warfare and piracy. History majors may consider this an upper division European history elective.

383 The Atlantic World 1450-1800 (4)

Focusing on the development of institutions and spread of movements that connected Western Africa, Northern Europe, North America, the Caribbean, and South America in a transatlantic context from 1450-1800, this course considers the topics of state formation, revolutions, empire, migration, religion, economy, race, class, and gender in an Atlantic framework. Although the course emphasizes the early modern period, additional consideration is given to the issues facing the Atlantic community in the modern era.

391 The Study of History (4) / Fall, Spring

An examination of various philosophies and methodologies that have shaped historiography. Consideration is given to the relationship between the historian and the climate of opinion, to varying interpretations of historical events, to the place of history as a literary art, and to the techniques of historical research and writing. Satisfies part of the Social Science Single Subject Waiver Program.

400 The Roman Republic (4)

A history of the Roman people from prehistory through Julius Caesar. The course covers political, economic, social, and cultural change in Rome's transition from a village of mud huts to Mediterranean empire.

401 The Roman Empire (4)

A history of the Roman Empire from Octavian to 476 CE, covering political, economic, social, and cultural change in Rome's transition from Mediterranean and European empire to the transformation of the empire in the West.

405 Anglo-Saxon England (4)

This course covers development and change in the political, economic, social, and cultural institutions of Anglo-Saxon England from the settlement and conquest period (ca. 400 CE) to the Norman Conquest in 1066.

406 The Crusades (4)

A study of the Crusades provides a microcosm of trends and assumptions in the Europe of the High Middle Ages. The course will focus on interrelationships of church, political structures, economy, and military structures, with special attention on the First, Fourth, and Sixth Crusades (1095-1270).

408 Early Middle Ages (4)

The Early Middle Ages in Europe from 300-1000. The fusion of classical, Christian, and Germanic tribal elements to develop medieval civilization. The course covers political, economic, social, and cultural change from the time of Constantine to 1000.

409 The High Middle Ages (4)

Medieval civilization from 1000-1400. The course includes: the conflict of church and state; growth of national monarchies; the agricultural revolution and growth of commerce; the flowering of medieval culture; and the devastations of the 14th century.

410 Early Modern Europe 1350-1789 (4)

This course offers a comparative study of states and society in Western Europe from the Renaissance to the French Revolution. Topics include: the persistence of the humanist tradition; European exploration and conquest; religious reform and ideology; the rise of science; and the crisis of culture and social relations. The emphasis in these centuries that shaped the modern world is social and cultural, but political and intellectual issues are also considered in depth.

411 The Enlightenment to World War I (1650-1914) (4)

A political, social, and cultural history that explores the origins of modern Europe. Topics include: the Scientific Revolution; the Enlightenment; the French Revolution; the Industrial Revolution; the impact of Europe on the world; the growth of liberalism and socialism; and the causes of World War I.

412 Europe Since 1914 (4)

An overview of 20th century European history and culture. Topics include: the impact of World War I; the appeal of totalitarian systems: communism, fascism, Nazism; Europe's "suicide" during World War II; rebuilding Europe and the course of the Cold War; European integration vs. nationalism; and Europe's cultural impact since 1914.

414 Gender and Society in Early Modern Europe (4)

This course examines the role of gender in early modern Europe from the late Middle Ages to the end of the eighteenth century. Topics include religion, law, labor, social, and family relations. The course also considers the impact of major historical developments such as the Renaissance, Reformation, Scientific Revolution, industrialization, and the rise of the modern state on gender relations.

415 Eastern Europe, 1815-1918 (4)

A survey of Eastern European history from the end of the Napoleonic Wars to World War I. Major topics include: the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian, Russian, and Ottoman Empires; nationalism; industrialization; fin-de-siecle cultural ferment; and the origins and impact of the Great War.

416 Eastern Europe, 1918-1989 (4)

A survey of Eastern Europe from the end of World War I to the collapse of communism. Major topics include: the creation of the new states; nationalism, socialism; the Holocaust; Stalinism; the anti-Soviet uprisings in Warsaw, Budapest, and Prague; and the revolutions of 1989.

417 Origins of Modern Russia (4)

A survey of Russian history from the origins of Kievan Rus in the 9th and 10th centuries to the Revolution of 1905. Major topics include the rise of Muscovy, the Mongol yoke, the development of the autocracy, Orthodoxy, serfdom, and most important, Russia's alleged peculiarity vis-a-vis the West.

419 Modern Russia and the Soviet Union (4)

A survey of Russian/Soviet history from the Revolution of 1905 to the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. Major topics include: the Russian Revolution of 1917; the NEP retreat; Stalinism; World War I; Thaw and Stagnation; and the Gorbachev reforms.

420 The French Revolution (4)

A consideration of the causes, events, and results of a turning point in European history. In addition to the events of the Revolution, the course includes economic, political, and social conditions in eighteenth century France, the French Enlightenment, the Napoleonic Era, and the varied historiography of the French Revolution.

422 Imperial Spain (4)

Examines Spain and the Spanish world in the early modern period, from Fernando and Isabel to Philip V. Includes the exploration and colonization of the New World, as well as the economic, political, and social history of Spain itself.

425 Britain 55 BCE to 1399 CE (4)

A survey of the sources and development of political, economic, social, and cultural institutions from the Roman invasion of Celtic Britain to the ouster of Richard II. Some topics include: the merging of Celtic; Roman and Anglo-Saxon cultures; the development of local self-government and law; the effect of Christianization; Viking invasions and royal government; the rise of towns and commerce; the effects of the Norman invasion; transition from personal rule to centralized government; the growth of Parliament; the Hundred Years' War; the Black Death; and the economic disruptions of the14th century.

426 Britain and Ireland 1399-1714 (4)

This course considers the social, political, religious, and cultural development of Britain and Ireland from the late Middle Ages to the beginning of empire and industrialization. Topics include: the Tudor revolutions in government and religion; relations between kings and parliaments; the evolution of toleration; and ideas about rights and liberty. Special consideration is given to the interaction of the three kingdoms (England, Ireland, and Scotland) in the formation of Great Britain and the role of that interaction in the emergence of the British Empire.

428 Modern Britain 1714 - present (4)

The study of the evolution of British society from the beginning of the eighteenth century to the present. Major political, economic, social, and cultural developments are covered including: industrialization and the rise of the working class; the emergence of imperial Britain; the Irish Question; the rise of the welfare state; and the role of decolonization, diversity, and devolution in the emergence of contemporary Britain, as well as its place in a united Europe.

431 History of Cuba (3-4)

A study of Cuba from the indigenous people to the present, with a major focus on the 20th century and the Revolution. Topics include: Spanish conquest; religions; sugar dependency; slavery; Afro-Cuban culture; men and women; immigration; independence; revolution and reform; foreign relations; and artistic expression.

432 Seminar in U.S. Economic History (4)

Economic development of the United States since the Revolution. Topics to be covered include capital formation and the growth of business concentration; distribution of national income; problems of agriculture; growth of the labor movement; patterns of inflation and depression; and the impact of international relationships on U.S. economic development. Prerequisite: ECON 201A or 201B or consent of the instructor.

433 History of Mexico (4)

A study of the Mexican people from the early native cultures to the present, with particular emphasis on the Mexican Revolution of 1910 and the major political, social, economic, and cultural developments of modern Mexico. Includes: major Indian cultures; the Conquest; religion and the Catholic Church; literary and artistic expressions; machismo and women; and relations between Mexico and the United States.

434 The United States and Latin America (4)

A study of official and unofficial relations between the United States and Latin America from independence to the present. Includes the Monroe Doctrine, the war with Mexico, the Panama Canal, U.S. interventions in Central America, the Good Neighbor Policy, the OAS, the Alliance for Progress, and reactions to revolutionary change in Latin America.

435 History of Modern China (4)

Explores the profound changes that have taken place in China from around 1600 to the present, including the apogee and decline of the imperial system; the encroachments of the West; the failure of Republicanism; the rise and eventual victory of the Chinese communists; and the consequences of China's adoption of a market-based economy in the 1980s.

436 Class and Gender in Modern East Asia (4)

A study of the status and role of women in China and Japan. Although emphasizing the period since 1700, the course will begin with a survey of the ancient intellectual traditions that shaped and constrained women's participation in society. Particular emphasis will be given to the influence of class on family structure and to the contributions of women to the revolutionary changes that have taken place in the last century.

438 Modern Japan (4)

Traces the development of Japanese society from earliest times to the present. While some attention will be given to early aristocratic culture and the emergence of the warrior elite, emphasis will be on the period after 1600, particularly the emergence of Japan as an international power after 1868. Emphasis will also be on economic success since World War II.

445 Topics in American Women's History (4)

Course will address the history of women in America from one of several topical or regional perspectives. Topics may include: law, women, and family in American history; women and work in American history; or women in the American West. When the class is offered, prospective students should consult the departmental descriptions for the periods and topics to be covered.

446 Women in American History (4)

A study of the status and role of women in America from the pre-colonial period to the present. Special attention will be given to the educational, labor, and political reforms of the 19th century, women's associations, and the various "waves" of women's rights and feminist activism.

447 Women of the Modern World (4)

A study of the major contributions and achievements of women and feminist groups in the development of the modern world, 1500 to the present. Special attention will be devoted to the political, economic, and social issues that directly impacted "the female world" and those societal problems that accelerated "gender consciousness" among women of the 19th and 20th centuries.

450 Colonial America (4)

A study of the European derived societies and cultures in those parts of North America that later became the United States from the beginnings of European expansion until 1763. Topics may include: European backgrounds; relations with native peoples; cultural mixing; labor systems; gender relations; and political, social, and economic characteristics and changes.

451 The American Revolution and the Early Republic (4)

A study of the political, economic, and social institutions and conditions during the long period that included the War of American Independence; the contest between federalism and anti-federalism in the newly-independent United States before 1789; and the emergence of a paradoxical American nation notable for a devotion to chattel slavery and to liberty, as well as for technological achievements represented by the Erie Canal.

452 Antebellum America (4)

A study of nineteenth-century American society and politics before the Civil War. Topics may include: the market revolution; the commercialization of agriculture; territorial expansion and its implications for chattel slavery and Indian policies; religious movements; reform movements; the emergence of the women's rights movement; and the lure of the West.

454 Civil War and Reconstruction (4)

A study of the causes and consequences of the Civil War, the struggles of the Reconstruction era, and the transformation of American society and politics in the period between 1850 and the end of Reconstruction.

456 The Emergence of Modern America (4)

A study of the major political, social, economic, diplomatic, and intellectual developments in the late 19th century and early 20th century United States. Topics may include the rise of the United States as a world industrial power, settlement of the Great Plains, American imperialism, the struggle for women's rights, conflicts over labor, and the Progressive era.

457 America through Depression and War (4)

A study of the causes and consequences of the Great Depression, U.S. involvement in World War II, and the advent of the Cold War. Explores the extent to which the challenges of the first half of the 20th century reshaped the United States socially, politically, economically, and culturally, particularly in regard to education, race, ethnicity, gender, and international political participation.

458 Modern America since World War II (4)

A study of political, social, economic, diplomatic, and cultural change at home and in international affairs as the United States took on a greater role as a global superpower after World War II. Topics may include the Vietnam War, civil rights, student protest, environmental issues, international regional military interventions, feminism, the end of the Cold War, the new conservatism of the 1980s, and the concerns of terrorism.

468 Blacks in American History (4)

A study of African culture, social philosophy, and political influences in the United States from the precolonial period until the Reagan administration. Major emphasis will be placed on black political philosophies and strategies during the periods of Reconstruction, WWI and WWII, the civil revolts of the 1960s, and the contemporary period of political activism.

470 The American South (4)

A regional history of the southeastern United States. The course examines the South from its Native American origins to its antebellum opulence; from the devastation of the Civil War to the development of the modern Sun Belt. An important sub-theme of the class is the journey of African Americans from slavery to freedom.

471 The American West (4)

A regional history of the trans-Mississippi west. Major political, social, and economic events relating to the Western United States are explored.

472 California History I (3-4)

Study of California history from the period of European contact through the early years of the 20th century. Special attention is given to the origins, means, and consequences of Spanish expansion into Alta California, to the emergence of Mexican California and its accelerated Americanization after the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo. The closing weeks of the course will include attention to themes that, though rooted in the earlier period, continue to shape present-day California. Among those themes are water policies, immigrations, and the consequences of California's great size and its location on the Pacific.

473 California History II (4)

Develops a historical perspective on major political, economic and social issues from the early 20th century invention of California through depression, war, and prosperity to the challenges of continuing growth and declining resources at century's end.

477 American Social History (4)

Selected review of the social history of the American peoples. Topics may include: social mobility; class structure; social movements; gender roles; race and ethnicity; generational differences; the "American Dream"; and individualism.

481 Religious Ideas in the Ancient Near East and India (4)

Beginning with a study of the symbolism of Upper Paleolithic humans, this course explores the epic and mythological traditions of Egypt, Mesopotamia, India, Iran, ancient Israel, and Canaan through classical Greece. Focus is on development, transmission, and transmutation of religious expression among the cultures studied.

482 Religious Ideas: Judaism - Christianity (4)

The course focuses on the history of Palestine, Judaism, and Christianity in the period from the conquest by Alexander in 332 BCE to the Edict of Milan in 313 CE. This is the critical formative period for the evolution of Judaism and Christianity. The course devotes particular attention to two sets of documents that have been discovered in this century and which have led to a reevaluation of the development of both Judaism and Christianity, the Dead Sea Scrolls of the community at Qumran, and the Gnostic materials found at Nag Hammadi in Egypt.

485 Materials and Technologies of the Ancient World (4)

This course is a detailed study of selected materials and technologies in the Eastern Hemisphere before approximately 500 CE and in the Western Hemisphere before effective European contact. The course is structured as a seminar, and the exact materials and technologies studied depend somewhat upon the interests of the students. However, some attention is devoted to each of the following: the treatment and shaping of stone, both for use as tools and for use as a building material; technologies of subsistence, including gathering, hunting, agriculture and the domestication of animals; pyrotechnologies, including ceramics, metals, plaster, and glass; and technologies of writing, transportation, and cosmetics.

486 The Archaeology of Complex Societies (4)

This course will focus on an archaeological perspective on the development of complex societies, societies in which the population is differentiated by status, occupation, and other criteria and in which most people submit to the authority of a small, elite group with a monopoly over force. The course will use data from the development of these societies in the Near East and in Mesoamerica to test theories pertaining to these societies and to illustrate the archaeological methodologies that are useful in identifying and understanding them.

487 Introduction to Egyptian Language and Culture (4)

This course is an introduction to the Egyptian language and its hieroglyphic and hieratic writing system. Students learn to read a story written in Middle Egyptian, the classical language of ancient Egypt. This is the version of the language that was the literary and administrative language from about 2250 to about 1350 BCE. The study of the language and writing systems is used to introduce students to related aspects of Egyptian culture and history. May be repeated for credit once.

495 Special Studies (1-4) Fall, Spring

Individualized studies in historical topics, themes, periods and/or areas beyond the scope of the established curriculum. Open from 1 to 4 units as determined by the department faculty sponsor. Not to be used as a substitute for HIST 498 Senior Seminar. For additional information, please consult the comments on special studies, in the Regulations and Policies section of this catalog.

496 History Journal (2) Fall, Spring

This class will cover all aspects of scholarly journal publication, including management, editing, setting up and implementing an anonymous review system; selection of manuscripts; layout; budgeting; production; sales; and distribution. Students will publish the department student history journal as the final result. May be repeated for credit. Cr/NC only.

497 Internship in History (1-6) Fall, Spring

Field experience in city, county, state, and federal agencies and with private business and community organizations. May be repeated three times for credit. Prerequisite: prior arrangement with instructor. (Cr/NC only.)

498 Senior Seminar (4) Fall, Spring

Directed studies in a seminar setting on a particular topic or theme (please see Schedule of Classes for the specific topic selected by the instructor). Combines secondary reading and original research leading to the completion of a research project.

499 History Honors Seminar (4) Fall, Spring

Individualized studies for advanced undergraduates with at least a 3.50 GPA who want graduate-level academic experience and the honors designation at graduation. Students develop a critical research project in cooperation with a faculty advisor, present their findings, and write a critique of another research paper. Prerequisites: 3.50 GPA, completion of specific major courses, proficiency in a second language, and permission of instructor and advisor. This course is not part of major requirements.

Graduate Courses

500 Historical Methods (3)

Workshop course providing practice in archival research, oral history, descriptive statistics, cultural material analysis, and other historical techniques. Required for all history graduate students, recommended for new graduate students in ITDS.

501 Culture, Society, and Policy Analysis (3)

An analysis of recent work in family, urban, social, and economic history, with particular emphasis on that research conducted within a cultural resource management and policy analysis context. Emphasis will be placed on the concepts and methodologies employed, particularly in the National Register of Historical Places. HIST 391 or 472 is recommended as a prerequisite.

510 Graduate Proseminar (2-4)

Readings and projects on topics within a common frame of reference, as arranged by instructor and participating students. Required of all graduate students.

578 Project Continuation (1-3) / Fall, Spring

Designed for students working on their thesis or master's project but who have otherwise completed all graduate coursework toward their degree. This course cannot be applied toward the minimum number of units needed for completion of the master's degree. Prerequisite: permission of the graduate coordinator. Cr/NC only.

593 Graduate Internship (2-4)

Experience in professional history, typically in museums, historical societies, and other public history settings, as well as junior college internship programs. Students will produce a professional product, such as a curated exhibit; a research report; a course syllabus; or finding aid. Grade only.

595 Special Studies (1-4) / Fall, Spring

Individualized studies in historical topics, themes, periods and/or areas beyond the scope of the established curriculum. Prerequisites: graduate status and prior arrangement with faculty sponsor and graduate advisor.

596 Research and Teaching Assistance (1-2) Fall, Spring

Directed participation and experience in developing teaching methods, course organization, and research techniques. Prerequisite: advanced graduate status and consent of instructor and graduate coordinator.

597 Graduate Seminar: Historical Themes and Issues (3-4) / Fall, Spring

Advanced studies and/or research projects relating to students' theses or field exam topics. Emphasis upon professional historical writing. Prerequisites: completion of 15 graduate course units and admission to candidacy. Non-majors only with permission of instructor.

598 Comprehensive Examination Reading and Research (3) Fall, Spring

Directed reading and research activities. Open only to graduate students with classified standing in history who have selected the comprehensive examination option for the M.A. degree. Preferably taken for credit during the semester in which the comprehensive examinations are scheduled. Prerequisite: classified graduate standing in the history comprehensive examination option for the M.A. Should be taken for each of the two comprehensive examination fields for a total of 6 units.

599 Master's Degree Thesis Research (6) / Fall, Spring

Extensive individual research and writing project under the direction of the student's thesis committee chair. Preferably taken for credit during the semester in which the M.A. thesis is scheduled for submission in final form. Prerequisites: classified graduate standing in the history thesis option for the M.A. and an authorized Advancement to Candidacy form.