Pre-History & History
At A Glance

Literature cited

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Last 150 Million Years

Alroy J. n.d. North American mammal ages. Paleobiology Database. http://paleodb.org/cgi-bin/bridge.pl?action=processViewScale&scale_no=8. Accessed 2012 Apr 6.

Dallman PR. 1998. Plant Life in the World's Mediterranean Climates:  California, Chile, South Africa, Autralia, and the Mediterranean Basin. Berkeley, Los Angeles, CA: California Native Plant Society.

Edwards SW. 1992. Observations on the prehistory and ecology of grazing in California. Fremontia 20(1):3-11.

Edwards SW. 1995. Notes on grazing and native plants in Central California. Four Seasons 10(1):61-67.

Edwards SW. 2007. Pleistocene and pre-European grassland ecosystems: Rancholabrean mammals of California and their relevance for understanding modern plant ecology. In: Stromberg MR, Corbin JD, D'Antonio CM, editors. California grasslands: Ecology and management. Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press. p 48-56.

Figueirido B, Palmqvist P, Perez-Claros JA. 2009. Ecomorphological correlates of craniodental variation in bears and paleobiological implications for extinct taxa: An approach based on geometric morphometrics. Journal of Zoology 277(1):70-80.

Jacobs BF, Kingston JD, Jacobs LL. 1999. The origin of grass-dominated ecosystems. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 86(2):590-643.

Kellogg EA. 2001. Evolutionary history of the grasses. Plant Physiology 125(3):1198-1205.

Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County. 2002. Return to the Ice Age: the La Brea Exploration Guide. http://http://www.tarpits.org/sites/default/files/Exploration%20Guide.pdf. Accessed 2012 Apr 6.

Parkman EB. 2006. The California Serengeti: Two hypotheses regarding the Pleistocene paleoecology of the San Francisco Bay Area. National Park Service. http://www.parks.ca.gov/pages/22491/files/the_california_serengetti_pleistocene_paleoecology_of_san_francisco_bay.pdf. Accessed 2012 Apr 6.

Parkman EB. c2011. Rubbing rocks, vernal pools, and the first Californians: Pursuing the Rancholabrean Hypothesis. California State Parks. http://http://www.parks.ca.gov/?page_id=23566. Accessed 2012 Apr 6. .

Prasad V, Stromberg CAE, Alimohammadian H, Sahni A. 2005. Dinosaur coprolites and the early evolution of grasses and grazers. Science 310 (5751):1177-1180.

Raven PH, Axelrod DI. 1995. Origin and relationships of the California Flora: California Native Plant Society. 134 p.

Richards GD, McCrossin ML. 1991. A new species of Antilocapra from the Late Quaternary of California. Geobios 24(5):623-635.

Solbrig OT, Cody ML, Fuentes ER, Glanz W, Hunt JH, Moldenke AR. 1977. The origin of the biota. Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania: Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross, Inc. 13-26 p.

UCMP. 2006. [UCMP] University Museum of Paleontology specimens database. University of California Museum of Paleontology and the UC Berkeley Digital Library Project. http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/science/collections.php. Accessed 2011 Feb 22.

Wagner FH. 1989. Grazers, past and present. In: Huenneke LR, Mooney HA, editors. Grassland structure and function: California annual grassland. Norwell: Kluwer Academic Publishers. p 151-162.

Wigand PE. 2007. Pleistocene and pre-European grassland ecosystems: Late quaternary paleoecology of grasslands and other grassy habitats. In: Stromberg MR, Corbin JD, D'Antonio CM, Editors. California grasslands: Ecology and management. Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press. p 37-48.

Woodburne MO. 1987. A prospectus of the North American Mammal Ages. In: Woodburne MO, Editor. Cenozoic Mammals of North America. Berkeley: University of California Press. p 285-290.

Last 10,000 Years

Anderson MK. 2005. Tending the wild: Native American knowledge and the management of California's natural resources. Berkeley CA: University of California Press. 526 p.

Anderson MK. 2007. Native American uses and management of California's Grasslands. In: Stromberg MR, Corbin JD, D'Antonio CM, editors. California grasslands: ecology and management. Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press. p 57-66.

Anderson MK, Wray J. 2003. Restoring Indian-set fires to prairie ecosystems on the Olympic Peninsula. Ecological Restoration 21 (4): 296-301. http://fusee.org/docs/Restoration/fir_eco_olym_restore.pdf.Accessed 2012 Apr 6.

Barry S, Larson S, George M. 2006. California native grasslands: a historical perspective, a guide for developing realistic restoration objectives.  Grasslands, Winter 2006. http://www.cnga.org/library/GrasslandsArticleBarry2006.pdf. Accessed 2012 Apr 6.

Bicknell SH, Amy T. Austin, Donna J. Bigg, R. Parker Godar. Late prehistoric vegetation patterns at six sites in coastal California; 1992; Honolulu, Hawaii. p 112.

Bicknell SH, Godar RP, Bigg DJ, Austin AT. 1993a. Fort Ross State Historic Park prehistoric vegetation. Final Report. Arcata, CA: California Dept. of Parks & Recreation and Humboldt State University.

Bicknell SH, Godar RP, Bigg DJ, Austin AT. 1993b. Salt Point State Park prehistoric vegetation. Final Report. Arcata, CA: California Dept. of Parks & Recreation and Humboldt State University.

Bicknell SH, Godar RP, Bigg DJ, Austin AT. 1993c. Mount Tamalpais State Park prehistoric vegetation. Final Report. Arcata, CA: California Dept. of Parks & Recreation and Humboldt State University.

Blackburn TC, Anderson MK, editors. 1993. Before the wilderness: environmental management by Native Californians. Menlo Park, CA: Ballena Press. 476 p.

Bocek BR. 1984. Ethnobotany of Costanoan Indians, California, based on collections by John P. Harrington. Economic Botany 38(2):240-255.

Burcham LT. 1957. California range land: an historico-ecological study of the range resources in California. Pub. No. 7. Center for Archaelogical Research at Davis, University of California. 256 p.

Burcham LT. 1961. Cattle and range forage in California: 1770-1880. Agricultural History 35(3):140-149.

Chesnut VK. 1902. Plants used by the Indians of Mendocino County, California. Contributions from the U.S. National Herbarium 7:295-408.

Edwards SW. 1995. Notes on grazing and native plants in Central California. Four Seasons 10(1):61-67.

Faith JT, Surovell TA. 2009. Synchronous extinction of North America's Pleistocene mammals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106(49):20641-20645.

Ford L, Hayes GF. 2007. Northern coastal scrub and coastal prairie. In: Barbour MG, Keeler-Wolf T, Schoenherr A, Editors. Terrestrial vegetation of California. 3rd Edition. Berkeley CA: University of California Press. p 180-207.

Goodrich J, Lawson C, Lawson VP. 1980. Kashaya Pomo plants. Berkeley, CA: Heyday Books.

Grayson DK. 2008. Holocene underkill. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105(11):4077-4078.

Grayson DK, Metlzer DJ. 2002. Clovis hunting and large mammal extinction: a critical review of the evidence. Journal of World Prehistory 16(4):313-359.

Heady HF, Foin TC, Hektner MM, Taylor DW, Barbour MG, Barry JW. 1977. Coastal prairie and northern coastal scrub. In: Barbour MG, Major J, editors. Terrestrial vegetation of California. Sacramento, CA: California Native Plant Society. p 733-760.

Heizer RF, Elsasser AB. 1980. The natural world of the California Indians. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 271 p.

Hill ME, Hill MG, Widga CC. 2008. Late Quaternary bison diminution on the Great Plains of North America: Evaluating the role of human hunting versus climate change. Quaternary Science Reviews 27(17-18):1752-1771.

Howard JL. 1998. Bromus hordeaceus. In: Fire Effects Information System. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/graminoid/brohor/all.html. Accessed 2012 Apr 6.

Jones TL, Porcasi JF, Erlandson JM, Dallas H, Wake TA, Schwaderer R. 2008. The protracted Holocene extinction of California's flightless sea duck (Chendytes lawi) and its implications for the Pleistocene overkill hypothesis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105(11):4105-4108.

Keeley JE. 2002. Native American impacts on fire regimes of the California coastal ranges. Journal of Biogeography 29:303-320. Publication brief for resource managers available at: http://www.wildfirelessons.net/documents/keeleypbapr2002.pdf.Accessed 2012 Apr 6.

Kelly I. 1996. Interviews with Tom Smith and Maria Copa: Isabel Kelly's ethnographic notes on the Coast Miwok Indians of Marin and Southern Sonoma Counties California. Collier MET, Thalman SB, editors. San Rafael, CA: Miwok Archeological Preserve of Marin. 543 p.

Kotzebue OV. 1830. A new voyage round the world, in the years 1823, 24, 25, and 26, Vol. II. Available from: The Project Gutenberg EBook Released 2008, June 17.http://www.gutenberg.org/files/25815/25815-h/25815-h.htm. Accessed 2012 Apr 6.

Lambert WD, Holling CS. 1998. Causes of ecosystem transformation at the end of the Pleistocene: evidence from mammal body-mass distributions. Ecosystems 1(2):157-175.

Lawson C, Lawson VP. 1976. Kashaya Pomo ethnobotanical project. Journal of California Anthropology 3(1):132-135.

Lewis HT. 1993. Patterns of Indian burning in California: ecology and ethnohistory. In: Blackburn TC, Anderson K, editors. Before the Wilderness: Environmental Management by Native Californians. Menlo Park, CA: Ballena Press. p 55-116.

Martin PS. 1967. Prehistoric overkill. In: Martin PS, Wright HE, editors. Pleistocene extinctions: the search for a cause. New Haven: Yale University Press. pp. 75–120.

Martin PS. 1973. The discovery of America. Science 179:969-974.

Moerman DE. 2003. Native American Ethnobotany: a database of foods, drugs, dyes and fibers of Native American peoples, derived from plants. http://herb.umd.umich.edu/;. Accessed 2012 Apr 6.

National Park Service, Point Reyes National Seashore. Coast Miwok at Point Reyes. http://www.nps.gov/pore/historyculture/people_coastmiwok.htm. Accessed 2012 Apr 6.

National Park Service, Point Reyes National Seashore. Point Reyes National Seashore - Fire ecology - Vegetation types. http://www.nps.gov/pore/parkmgmt/firemanagement_fireecology_vegtypes.htm. Accessed 2012 Apr 6.

Peri DW. 1985. Pomoan plant resource management. Ridge Review:5-9.

Peri DW, Patterson SM. 1976. The basket is in the roots, that's where it begins. Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology 3(2):17-32.

Raven PH, Axelrod DI. 1995. Origin and relationships of the California Flora. Sacramento: California Native Plant Society. 134 p.

Sampson AW. 1924. Native American forage plants.  John Wiley and Sons, Inc. New York. 435 pp. Available on-line from:  Albert R. Mann Library. 2008. Core Historical Literature of Agriculture (CHLA). Ithaca NY: Albert R. Mann Library, Cornell University. http://chla.library.cornell.edu/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=chla;cc=chla;q1=native%20american%20forage%20plants;rgn=full%20text;view=toc;idno=3116741. Accessed 2012 Apr 6.

Stephens, M. 2000. Plant guide: Douglas iris. United States Department of Agriculture. http://plants.usda.gov/plantguide/pdf/cs_irdo.pdf. Accessed 2012 Apr 6.

Stewart OC. 1951. Burning and natural vegetation in the United States. Geographical Review 41(2):317-320.

Stewart OC. 2002. Forgotten fires: Native Americans and the transient wilderness. Lewis HT, Anderson MK. editors.Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press. 364 p.

Stodder ALW. 1986. Mechanisms and trends in the decline of the Costanoan Indian population of  Central California: nutrition and health in pre-contact California and Mission Period environments. Breschini GS, Haversat T, Editors. Salinas CA: Reprint by Coyote Press. 78 p.

Stromberg MR, D'Antonio CM, Young TP, Wirka J, Kephart PR. 2007. California grassland restoration. In: Stromberg MR, Corbin JD, D'Antonio CM, editors. California grasslands: Ecology and management. Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press. p 254-280.

Timbrook J. 1990. Ethnobotany of Chumash Indians, California, based on collections by John P. Harrington. Economic Botany 44(2):236-253.

Wagner FH. 1989. Grazers, past and present. In: Huenneke LR, Mooney HA, editors. Grassland structure and function: California annual grassland. Norwell: Kluwer Academic Publishers. p 151-162.

Recent History

Amme D. 2003. Creating a native California meadow. Grasslands 13 (3):1, 9-11. http://www.cnga.org/library/CreatingANativeCaliforniaMeadowAmme2003.pdf. Accessed 2012 Apr 6.

Biswell HH. 1956. Ecology of California grasslands. Journal of Range Management 9:19-24.

Bush L. n.d. Grazing handbook: a guide for resource managers in coastal California. Sotoyome Resource Conservation District. http://www.sotoyomercd.org/GrazingHandbook.pdf. Accessed 2012 Apr 6.

Burcham 1961. Cattle and range forage in California: 1770 – 1880. Agricultural History 35(3): 140 – 149. 

California Partners in Flight. 2000. Version 1.0. The draft grassland bird conservation plan: a strategy for protecting and managing grassland habitats and associated birds in California (B. Allen, lead author). Point Reyes Bird Observatory, Stinson Beach, CA. http://www.prbo.org/calpif/pdfs/grassland.v-1.pdf. Individual species accounts available at: http://www.prbo.org/calpif/htmldocs/grassland.html. Accessed 2012 Apr 6. .

CNPS. 2001. California Native Plant Society Santa Cruz Chapter. Plant communities of Santa Cruz County: Coastal terrace prairie. http://www.cruzcnps.org/CoastalTerracePrairie.html. Accessed 2012 Apr 6.

Cooper DW. 1960. Fort Baker Ranges returned to champagne grasses. Journal of Range Management 13:202-205.

Crampton B. 1974. Grasses in California. Smith AC, editor. Berkeley: Univeristy of California Press. 184 p.

Dahlman RC, Kucera CL. 1965. Root productivity and turnover in native prairie. Ecology 46(1-2):84-89.

Darris DC. 2008. Plant guide: meadow barley (Hordeum brachyantherum Nevski). United States Department of Agriculture. Natural Resources Conservation Service. http://plants.usda.gov/factsheet/pdf/fs_hobr2.pdf. Accessed 2011 Apr 6.

Eilerin J. 2006. The checkerspot mystery: An ecological whodunit. Washington Post. 2006 May 22. http://californiarangeland.ucdavis.edu/Publications%20pdf/CRCC/The%20Checkerspot%20Mystery%20-%20An%20Ecological%20Whodunit.pdf.Accessed 2012 Apr 6.

Facelli JM, Pickett STA. 1991. Plant litter: its dynamics and effects on plant community structure. Botanical Review 57(1):1-32.

Fenn ME, Baron JS, Allen EB, Rueth HM, Nydick KR, Geiser L, Bowman WD, Sickman JO, Meixner T, Johnson DW and others. 2003. Ecological effects of nitrogen deposition in the western United States. Bioscience 53(4):404-420.

Ford L, Hayes GF. 2007. Northern coastal scrub and coastal prairie. In: Barbour MG, Keeler-Wolf T, Schoenherr A, editors. Terrestrial vegetation of California. 3rd Edition. Berkeley CA: University of California Press. p 180-207.

Green LR, Bentley JR. 1957. Seeding and grazing trials of Stipa on foothill ranges. Forest Research Notes. California Forest and Range Experiment Station. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. Report No. 128.  Available from: http://www.cnga.org/library/GreenBentley1957.pdf. 7 p. Accessed 2012 Apr 6.

Greenlee JM, Langenheim JH. 1990. Historic fire regimes and their relation to vegetation patterns in the Monterey Bay area of California. American Midland Naturalist 124:239-253.

Griffith SM. 2004. Restoring California's native grasses. United States Department of Agriculture. Agricultural Research Service. http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/AR/archive/may04/grass0504.htm. Accessed 2011 Apr 6.

Harrison SP, Viers JH. 2007. Serpentine grasslands. In: Stromberg MR, Corbin JD, D'Antonio CM, editors. California grasslands: ecology and management. Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press. p 145-155.

Hatch DA, Bartolome JW, Fehmi JS, Hillyard DS. 1999. Effects of burning and grazing on a coastal California grassland. Restoration Ecology 7(4):376-381.

Hayes GF, Holl KD. 2003. Cattle grazing impacts on annual forbs and vegetation compostion of mesic grasslands in California. Conservation Biology 17(6):1694-1702.

Heady HF, Foin TC, Hektner MM, Taylor DW, Barbour MG, Barry JW. 1977. Coastal prairie and northern coastal scrub. In: Barbour MG, Major J, editors. Terrestrial Vegetation of California. Sacramento, CA: California Native Plant Society. p 733-760.

Hillyard D. 2004. Coastal terrace prairie: regulatory applications.. Accessed 2012 Dec 13.

Hitchcock AS. 1971. Manual of grasses of the United States in two volumes. Chase A, editor. New York: Dover Publications, Inc. 1051 p.

Howard JL. 1998. Bromus hordeaceus. In: Fire Effects Information System. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/graminoid/brohor/all.html. Accessed 2012 Apr 6.

Huntsinger L, Bartolome J, D'Antonio CM. 2007. Grazing management on California's Mediterranean grasslands. In: Stromberg MR, Corbin JD, D'Antonio CM, editors. California grasslands: Ecology and management. Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press. p 233-253.

Kie JG. 2005. Annual grassland. California Wildlife Habitat Relationships System, California Department of Fish and Game, California Interagency Wildlife Task Group. http://www.dfg.ca.gov/biogeodata/cwhr/pdfs/AGS.pdf. Accessed 2012 Apr 6.

Kinney WC. 1996. Conditions of rangelands before 1905. In: Centers for water and wildland resources. 1996. Sierra Nevada Ecosystem Project, final report to Congress, status of the Sierra Nevada, volume II, assessments and scientific basis for management options. Wildland Resources Center Report Number 37. pp. 31-45. Davis, CA: University of California, Davis.

Lamb EG. 2008. Direct and indirect control of grassland community structure by litter, resources, and biomass. Ecology 89(1):216-225.

Loveland TR, Hutcheson HL. 1995. Monitoring changes in landscapes from satellite imagery. Pages 468-473 in U. S. G. Society, Editor. Our Living Resources: A Report to the Nation on the Distribution, Abundance, and Health of U.S. Plants, Animals, and Ecosystems. U.S. Department of Interior, National Biological Service, Washington, D.C.

Lyons RK, Hanselka CW. n.d. Grazing and browsing: how plants are affected. Texas Cooperative Extension. Texas A&M University System. http://repository.tamu.edu/bitstream/handle/1969.1/87088/pdf_1523.pdf?sequence=1. Accessed 2012 Apr 6.

Marin Carbon Project. 2009.  http://www.marincarbonproject.org/.Accessed 2012 Apr 6.

Marty JT. 2005. Effects of cattle grazing on diversity in ephemeral wetlands. Conservation Biology 19(5):1626-1632.

Mattoni R, Longcore TR. 1997. The Los Angeles coastal prairie, a vanished community. Crossosomma 23(2): 71-102. http://www.urbanwildlands.org/Resources/MattoniLongcore1997lores.pdf. Poster PDF: http://www.urbanwildlands.org/Resources/prairieposter.pdf. Accessed 2012 Apr 6.

McLauchlan KK, Hobbie SE, Post WM. 2006. Conversion from agriculture to grassland builds soil organic matter on decadal timescales. Ecological Applications 16(1):143-153.

McNaughton SJ. 1968. Structure and function in California grasslands. Ecology 49(5):962-&.

National Park Service, Tallgrass Prairie National Preserve, Kansas.  Prairies and grasslands:lungs of a nation. http://www.nps.gov/tapr/naturescience/prairies-and-grasslands.htm.Accessed 2012 Apr 6.

Norton JB, Monaco TA, Norton U. 2007. Mediterranean annual grasses in western North America: kids in a candy store. Plant and Soil 298(1-2):1-5.

Noss RF, Peters RL. 1995. Endangered ecosystems: a status report on America's vanishing habitat and wildlife. http://www.k-state.edu/withlab/consbiol/endangeredeco.pdf. Accessed 2012 Apr 6. Washington DC: Defenders of Wildlife. 151 p.

Owensby CE. 1998. Role of grasslands as modifiers of global climate change. Proc. 18th International Grassland Congress. pg. 9-12. Winnipeg, Canada. June, 1998. http://spuds.agron.ksu.edu/canadaigc.pdf. Accessed 2012 Apr 6.

Pollinator Partnership. 2010. Selecting plants for pollinators: A regional guide for farmers, land managers, and gardeners in the ecological region of the California coastal prairie, mixed forest, redwood forest province along the northern California coast. A NAPPC and Pollinator Partnership Publication. 24 pp. http://www.pollinator.org/guides.htm. Accessed 2012 Apr 6.

Sampson AW. 1924. Native American forage plants.  John Wiley and Sons, Inc. New York. 435 pp. Available on-line from:  Albert R. Mann Library. 2008. Core Historical Literature of Agriculture (CHLA). Ithaca, NY: Albert R. Mann Library, Cornell University. http://chla.library.cornell.edu/cgi/t/text/pageviewer-idx?c=chla;cc=chla;idno=3116741;node=3116741%3A5;frm=frameset;view=image;seq=8;page=root;size=s. Accessed 2012 Apr 6.

Stromberg MR, D'Antonio CM, Young TP, Wirka J, Kephart PR. 2007. California grassland restoration. In: Stromberg MR, Corbin JD, D'Antonio CM, editors. California grasslands: Ecology and management. Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press. p 254-280.

Tollefson JE. 2006. Bromus carinatus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory. http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/graminoid/brocar/all.html. Accessed 2012 Apr 6.

USDA Forest Service. 2011. Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis. Accessed 2012 April 6.

Volaire F, Norton MR, Lelievre F. 2009. Summer drought survival strategies and sustainability of perennial temperate forage grasses in Mediterranean areas. Crop Science 49(6):2386-2392.

Walsh RA. 1995a. Deschampsia cespitosa. In: Fire Effects Information System. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory. (http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/graminoid/desces/all.html. Accessed 2012 Apr 6.

Walsh RA. 1995b. Festuca rubra. In: Fire Effects Information System. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory. (http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/graminoid/fesrub/all.html. Accessed 2012 Apr 6.

White R, Murray S, Rohweder M. 2000. Pilot analysis of global ecosystems: grassland ecosystems. World

Resources Institute. Washington DC. 69pp. Also available at: http://www.wri.org/publication/pilot-analysis-global-ecosystems-grassland-ecosystems. Accessed 2011 Apr 6.

Whitson TD, editor. 2002. Weeds of the west. 9th edition: University of Wyoming. 628 p.

Wigand PE. 2007. Pleistocene and pre-European grassland ecosystems: Late Quaternary paleocology of grasslands and other grassy habitats. In: Stromberg MR, Corbin JD, D'Antonio CM, editors. California grasslands: ecology and management. Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press. p 37-48.

Xiong SJ, Nilsson C. 1999. The effects of plant litter on vegetation: a meta-analysis. Journal of Ecology 87(6):984-994.

Zouhar KL. 2000. Festuca idahoensis. Fire Effects Information System. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/graminoid/fesida/all.html. Accessed 2012 Apr 6.