PROJECT FORMAT

The format may vary in minor details to fit your project, but basically please follow the guidelines below.


1. ABSTRACT (This is the last thing you will write.) A one-paragraph summary of what you wanted to do, how you went about it, and your results. This should not be more than half a page.


2. INTRODUCTION. A statement of the problem and what you wish to change. Includes:
a. An operational definition of the behavior to be changed. This may have several parts if there are several sub-behaviors.
b. A narrative statement of what is occurring. Tell the story of what you find disturbing and undesirable, or what positive changes you would like to make. Tell it clearly enough that any intelligent reader would understand, quite specifically, the present situation and how you would like to change it. Vignettes with dialogue are perfectly acceptable as part of this, and bring it to life. But they are not required.
c. A statement of your goal or goals. This is likely to take the form of an operational description of a target behavior or behaviors.


3. BASELINE. Includes:
a. A graph, showing the daily frequency of the behavior(s) you wish to change, ideally for at least two weeks. You may wish, but do not have to, include the supporting table containing the data on which the graph is based.
b. An ABC analysis, showing sample ABCs from your recording. Include enough incidents from your ABC records to allow the reader to see the pattern of what's happening. You may wish to include narrative comment on this, but it's not required.
c. (Optional) In some cases a time-and-event grid may be needed to get a good handle on what's occurring. If so, by all means include it.


4. METHOD, PROCEDURE, OR INTERVENTION PROGRAM. (Any of these titles is acceptable for this section)
Here you describe your intervention procedure which is customarily introduced after the baseline recording. If there is more than one element in your intervention, list each one separately. These may include:
a. Bringing the unwanted or desired behavior under the control of certain stimuli, possibly using narrowing or stimulus generalization.
b. Creating a chain of linked behaviors, or intercepting an unwanted behavior early in the chain.
c. Primary or secondary reinforcement for desired behavior, which may include tokens or social reinforcement from others.
d. Observation and imitation of models
e. Cognitive interventions such as recording disturbing cognitions, disputing or reframing or empirically testing them, and substituting more helpful cognitions (either word-patterns or imagery)
f. Desensitization elements (one step at a time, steps not too big)
g. Shaping--successive approximations to the desired behavior.
h. Escape or avoidance contingencies
i. Whatever else we have studied or that you can think of that may work.
Each intervention should be described with sufficient clarity that another person could read your description and carry it out.
Don't just cite a method in the abstract--For example,"I'll use thought-stopping" and assume that the reader will know what you mean. Describe exactly which thoughts and how you will stop them and what you will substitute.


5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
This may be one section or two, as seems appropriate in your case. Results includes the continuation of your graph showing frequency and/or duration of behaviors after your intervention, and your narrative comments about what happened.
Discussion includes a statement about whether your program is finished or will continue, and if successful, what you will do to maintain the changed behavior in the future. (The last chapters in Watson & Tharp address the latter issue.) And it includes anything else you want to say about your project.