REVIEW SHEET THREE, ON OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING AND COGNITIVE-BEHAVIORAL APPROACHES

SHORT-ANSWER QUESTIONS

1. What is a symbolic model?

2. Observational learning occurs when:

3. What is vicarious reinforcement?

4. What is a response induction aid? Give an example.

5. Vicarious extinction is most often used to:

6. What is more important in observational learning: The actual schedule of reinforcement or what a person perceives it to be?

7. What are several factors that increase the chances that an observer will learn how to behave in a way similar to that of a model?

8. What's the difference between a coping model and a mastery model? Is one kind always better than the other, or does each have its use?

9. How does Bandura's work on fear-reduction combine modeling and desensitization?

10. What is the essence of the process of imagined modeling?

11. The gist of the person-environment relationship posited by Albert Ellis “rational-emotive”approach is that our emotions are caused by_______________________ rather than by ________________________

12., Define these common forms of faulty reasoning described by Ellis:Absolute thinking; Overgeneralization; Catastrophizing; Musturbation

13. The three key steps in Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy are:
a.
b.
c.

14. The "collaborative empiricism" used in Aaron Beck’s cognitive therapy approach involves:

15. What are the headings of the three categories in Beck’s “Triple Column Technique?”
___________________ ____________________ ________________

16. In the “Mastery and Pleasure Rating” technique, “Mastery” refers to (1)and “Pleasure” refers to:

17. What does a “graded task assignment” accomplish?

18. What is the implication of “constructivism” for cognitive therapy?

19. What are the five steps involved in Donald Meichenbaum’s “self-instructional training?”

20. What are the steps involved in Meichenbaum’s “stress inoculation training?”

21. Describe the steps involved in the Liberman & Liberman model of assertiveness (social skills) training

22. Describe the various elements you are now able to see as being constitutent parts of the assertiveness training behavioral rehearsal model demonstrated in class.

23. Martin Seligman found that after dogs had been confined in a situation where they could not escape from electric shock, or where they were sometimes shocked and sometimes not but had no control over this themselves, in the future they:

24. True or False? Seligman found that learned helplessness both saps the motivation to initiate responses, and disrupts the ability to learn.

25. Seligman’s research group found that the crucial element in treating dogs suffering from Learned Helplessness was:

26. A person who is suffering from both learned helplessness and depression is likely to make such self-statements as:

27. According to Bandura, in effective performance, what is the most usual relationship between people’s perceived self-efficacy and their underlying skills?

28. When they face difficulties, people who are high in perceived self-efficacy tend to:

29. Some characteristics of people who perceive themselves as inefficacious are that they:

30. How is Bandura’s "self-efficacy" related to Seligman’s "learned helplessness?" Describe how this relationship can be put to practical use.

31. What is the psychological construct associated with Julian Rotter? Name and briefly define the two extremes ends of the continuum that underlies it.

32. What are two essential elements of the behavior therapy approach described and demonstrated by Arnold Lazarus?

33. What is the difference between primary and secondary appraisal, as Richard Lazarus defines them?

BRIEF ESSAY QUESTIONS

34. Using the language of learning theory, describe how phobias are learned, as conceptualized by John Dollard and Neal Miller.

35, Using the language of learning theory, describe how the process of repression is learned, as conceptualized by Dollard and Miller

36. Contrast Richard Lazarus' conception of the learning process with that of early S-R and S-O-R learning theorists.

 

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