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SONOMA STATE UNIVERSITY

RESEARCH AND EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE BRIEF

Note: Pay attention to the point distribution as this is how the different areas are weighted for the final grade. Not that length necessarily equals quality, but if an area is worth 25% it needs to be longer than one paragraph! Remember, be parsimonious! This is a summary brief, not a literature review. Short analytical sentences are preferred.

Example of a well done Summary Brief

 

SONOMA STATE UNIVERSITY

RESEARCH AND EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE BRIEF

Note: Pay attention to the point distribution as this is how the different areas are weighted for the final grade. Not that length necessarily equals quality, but if an area is worth 25% it needs to be longer than one paragraph! Remember, be parsimonious! This is a summary brief, not a literature review. Short analytical sentences are preferred.

 

  • We have added the possibility of Time (T) for your PICOT question.
  • Under Summary of Evidence, we are really encouraging you to use subheadings. These make the summary easier to follow and it helps you with both analysis and it is clearer to you where there is stronger evidence and where there is less substantive evidence. We have also added two short synthesis paragraphs: Limitations of current evidence and strengths of current evidence.
  • Under Summary of Evidence from Organizations, Experience and/or Experts in the Specialty we have provided you with additional specific possibilities such as nurse practice acts, government agencies and healthcare organizations. You need to know what positions these agencies have taken. If they have not addressed your topic then you will want to state that also!
  • In the Apply the Evidence Section you can not make recommendations that were not analyzed in either Summary of Evidence sections. Therefore double check your Apply the Evidence Section and make sure your recommendations are supported with evidence!

 

SONOMA STATE UNIVERSITY
EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE BRIEF
Date _______
Author(s).___________________________
Purpose: The purpose of the evidence-based practice brief is to further knowledge and understanding of the best nursing practices for any given nursing problem/focus/issue/concern.
1. Ask the PICOT question: The PICOT question will guide a search for nursing practice evidence informing your chosen problem/focus/issue/concern.  Remember nursing focuses on the human response to health states and conditions versus the state or condition itself. Your PICOT question should always contain the P, I, and O and in many cases the C and T as well. 
(P) Population:
(I)  Intervention or Area of Interest:
(C) Comparison: (you may not have one of these)
(O) Outcome:
(T) Time: (you may not have one of these)

2. Background: Briefly tell the story of the issue and why it deserves our attention. The story is background – not evidence. Save the evidence for later in summary of evidence.

3. Objective: What is it that you wish to gain from you evidence search? What is it that you want your PICOT to answer?  Think of your objective/s as your goal/s.

4. Search for Evidence: List strategies and databases reviewed. For example, “Selection criteria: English publications within the past 5 years, research based articles (levels I to VII). Older references may be seminal and can be used. Search databases such as CINAHL and Pub Med and systematic reviews such as Cochrane.

5. Summary of Research Evidence: All articles in this section should be research reports, either a report of a single studies or a systematic review (a review or meta-analysis of a number of research articles).  For each research reference document the authors, title and journal, then create a very brief summary of each article (just one or two sentences that remind you of the article’s content)

6. Summary of Expert Evidence from Organizations, Experience and/or Experts in the Specialty:
Examples of these sources of evidence include nurse practice acts, nursing organizations and Healthy People 2020. Other sources include government agencies (e.g. the Center for Disease Control) and healthcare organizations such as the American Nurses’ Association (ANA), and the American Medical Association (AMA) and specific groups such as the Oncology Nursing Society (ONS).  Sources of evidence also include nurse expertise and patient preferences. Document any expert nurses’ or patients’ input.

7.  Critical Analysis:  Given all of the evidence you’ve collected from research and experts, create a paragraph or two that summarizes what you have found.  The content for this section implies that you have analyzed all of the listed evidence and are confident of the statements you submit. Consistent with scientific writing, your conclusions should be elegantly concise. Subheadings provide clarity for the readers. Subheadings are to include limitations of current evidence, strengths of current evidence and evidence that is pro and con. If there are no cons (“down-sides”), then state so.

8.  Apply the Evidence: Make logical, reasonable, feasible recommendations supported by the evidence presented in sections 5, 6 and 7 above. Be specific and definitive. Recommendations are being made therefore “shoulds” are to be avoided. Use a bulleted format for clarity. If you are recommending more study is needed, state why you are taking this position.

9.  Stakeholders/Change Agents: Who and what organizations are concerned with, will benefit from or be affected by this proposal? This may include patients, students, tax payers, agencies, Joint Commission, insurance companies etc.

10. Feasibility: Briefly discuss the influence of stakeholders/change agents as they might influence the viability of your evidence-based recommendations. In other words, how likely is it that your recommendations/changes can/will be successfully adopted/enacted/maintained? For example: “Evidence supports X and stakeholders are likely to support or refute this because…. “

11.  References: Provide complete, APA formatted references for all research and expert evidence.
 
Special Tips:

  • Make the final product a quick read for those interested in the issue AND make a compelling argument for the solution – or Apply the Evidence. That is how you become an activist – influence people to take the action.
  • Use spell check and grammar check. If you have a writing learning curve to conquer get a buddy to read your paper and/or read each sentence out loud. Some of the sentence structure errors are edits and most can be corrected by grammar check.
  •  You don’t need a face page. Yes, use APA except single space your paper with a space between sections and bullets.
     


 

  • Make the final product a quick read for those interested in the issue AND make a compelling argument for the solution – or Apply the Evidence. That is how you become an activist – influence people to take the action.
     
  • Spell check and grammar check. If you have a writing learning curve to conquer get a buddy to read your paper and/or read each sentence out loud. Some of the sentence structure errors are edits and most can be corrected by grammar check.
  •  You don’t need a face page. Yes, use APA except single space with a space between sections and bullets.
     

Rating System for the Hierarchy of Evidence

  1. Level I: Evidence from a systematic review or meta-analysis of all relevant
  2. randomized controlled trials (RCTs), or evidence-based clinical
  3. practice guidelines based on systematic reviews of RCTs
  4. Level II: Evidence obtained from at least one well-designed RCT
  5. Level III: Evidence obtained from well-designed controlled trials without
  6. Randomization
  7. Level IV: Evidence from well-designed case-control and cohort studies
  8. Level V: Evidence from systematic reviews of descriptive and qualitative
  9. Studies
  10. Level VI: Evidence from a single descriptive or qualitative study
  11. Level VII: Evidence from the opinion of authorities and/or reports of expert committees

Melnyk, BM, & Fineout-Overholt, E: (2011). Evidence-based practice in nursing & healthcare. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins,.

 

EBP Summary Brief grading Criteria
Topic:
Group Members:
Grade:


Topic

Points

PICOT Question:

 

/1

Background summary:

 

/3

Specific objectives for this review:

 

/1

Search for Evidence: strategies and databases reviewed

 

/1

Summary of Evidence: The statements in this section imply that you have analyzed the evidence and are confident of the statements you submit.

/4

Summary of Evidence from Organizations, Experience and/or Experts in the Specialty:

 

/2

Critical Analysis: The content for this section implies that you have analyzed all of the listed evidence and are confident of the statements you submit. /4
Apply the Evidence: Recommendations for Practice: /4

Input From Stakeholders:

 

/2

Feasibility:

/2

Grammar, Spelling, APA and References: (APA format) At least 5 references used.
 

/1

Total:

/25

Intellectual Standards for Written Work
Based on Critical Thinking Criteria

Criteria

Always Applied

Usually Applied

Sometimes Applied

Rarely or Never Applied

1.

CLARITY: Elaborates fully on the points that are made, expresses points in alternate ways, as needed, and gives illustrations and examples.

 

 

 

 

2.

ACCURACY: Presents ideas and information that are true, and substantiates their truth by indicating how they can be verified.

 

 

 

 

3.

PRECISION: Gives sufficient detail with precision and specificity.

 

 

 

 

4.

RELEVANCE: Shows that the ideas and information are connected to the question or the issue.

 

 

 

 

5.

DEPTH: The answer or response addresses the complexities in the question, and deals with the most significant factors. Problems in the question are taken into account.

 

 

 

 

6.

BREADTH: Other points of view are considered, as necessary. The issue is looked at from other sides.

 

 

 

 

7.

LOGIC: The response or answer makes sense. Statements and ideas flow from/to one another. Ideas that support one another are connected.

 

 

 

 

8.

NEW INFORMATION: Provides comments and new information that contribute to furthering the topic.

 

 

 

 

9.

SOLID UNDERSTANDING: Reveals a solid understanding of the topic as evidenced by thoughtful responses and/or questions.

 

 

 

 

10.

CRITICAL ANALYSIS: Offers a critical analysis of an existing idea or introduces a different interpretation to an existing idea.

 

 

 

 

11.

WRITING: Writes in complete sentences, that are well organized, grammatically correct and free of spelling errors. APA format

 

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

 
Jeanette Koshar, RN, MSN, NP, PhD
Office: (707) 664-2649 | Office Hours: Wednesday 12-3, email and by appointment
Email:
jeanette.koshar@sonoma.edu