N 340 Women's Health & Illness in The Expanding Family & N345 Clinical Practicum
Gordon's Functional Health Patterns
Marjorie Gordon (1987) proposed functional health patterns as a guide for establishing a comprehensive nursing data base. These 11 categories make possible a systematic and standardized approach to data collection, and enable the nurse to determine the following aspects of health and human function:
Health Perception and Health Management. Data collection is focused on the person's perceived level of health and well-being, and on practices for maintaining health. Habits that may be detrimental to health are also evaluated, including smoking and alcohol or drug use. Actual or potential problems related to safety and health management may be identified as well as needs for modifications in the home or needs for continued care in the home.
Nutrition and Metabolism Assessment is focused on the pattern of food and fluid consumption relative to metabolic need. The adequacy of local nutrient supplies is evaluated. Actual or potential problems related to fluid balance, tissue integrity, and host defenses may be identified as well as problems with the gastrointestinal system.
Elimination. Data collection is focused on excretory patterns (bowel, bladder, skin). Excretory problems such as incontinence, constipation, diarrhea, and urinary retention may be identified.
Activity and Exercise. Assessment is focused on the activities of daily living requiring energy expenditure, including self-care activities, exercise, and leisure activities. The status of major body systems involved with activity and exercise is evaluated, including the respiratory, cardiovascular, and musculoskeletal systems.
Cognition and Perception. Assessment is focused on the ability to comprehend and use information and on the sensory functions. Data pertaining to neurologic functions are collected to aid this process. Sensory experiences such as pain and altered sensory input may be identified and further evaluated.
Sleep and Rest. Assessment is focused on the person's sleep, rest, and relaxation practices. Dysfunctional sleep patterns, fatigue, and responses to sleep deprivation may be identified.
Self-Perception and Self-Concept. Assessment is focused on the person's attitudes toward self, including identity, body image, and sense of self-worth. The person's level of self-esteem and response to threats to his or her self-concept may be identified.
Roles and Relationships. Assessment is focused on the person's roles in the world and relationships with others. Satisfaction with roles, role strain, or dysfunctional relationships may be further evaluated.
Sexuality and Reproduction. Assessment is focused on the person's satisfaction or dissatisfaction with sexuality patterns and reproductive functions. Concerns with sexuality may he identified.
Coping and Stress Tolerance. Assessment is focused on the person's perception of stress and on his or her coping strategies Support systems are evaluated, and symptoms of stress are noted. The effectiveness of a person's coping strategies in terms of stress tolerance may be further evaluated.
Values and Belief. Assessment is focused on the person's values and beliefs (including spiritual beliefs), or on the goals that guide his or her choices or decisions.
Jeanette Koshar, RN, MSN, NP, PhD