Chapter 4: Teaching Students with Lower Incidence Disabilities

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Objectives

 

Upon completion of this chapter the learner will:

  • Describe and discuss the prevalence and characteristics of students with visual disabilities.
  • Describe and discuss the prevalence and characteristics of students with hearing impairments.
  • Describe and discuss the prevalence and characteristics of students with physical disabilities and other health impairments.
  • Describe and discuss the prevalence and characteristics of students with severe and multiple disabilities.
  • Describe and discuss the prevalence and characteristics of students with autism.
  • List, describe, and be able to recommend adaptations and modifications to promote inclusion of students with lower-incidence disabilities.

Go to Part 2- Summary of Ideas

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Part 2: Summary of Ideas


Lower incidence disabilities cover a wide range of disabilities which can be present at birth or acquired later in life.


 

Lower-incidence disabilities occur less frequently in the general population than other disabilities areas. Disabilities include visual impairments, hearing impairments, physical disabilities, other health impairments, severe and multiple disabilities, and autism.

Individuals with visual impairments represent one of the smallest categories of exceptionality. Students may have very low vision to no vision. These students may exhibit learning difficulties unless adaptations are made, including arranging the physical environment for easy accessibility, enhancing printed materials, using Braille and oral formats, and using concrete tactile and 3-dimensional examples.

Students with hearing impairments have mild to severe hearing losses. Individuals with mild to moderate hearing impairments usually wear hearing aids, while individuals who are deaf may use sign language or total communication. Students may require instruction in language and communication skills.

Students with physical disabilities may exhibit difficulties using their arms, legs, or both arms and legs. Some of these students may exhibit problems with communication. Specific adaptations for increasing mobility, assisting with fine motor control, and improving communication skills help students become more independent and successful.

Students with other health impairments may have serious medical needs that require special attention and that restrict their learning in school. Coordination with medical professionals while monitoring health and educational needs helps these students with school success.

Students with severe disabilities have severe mental retardation and exhibit difficulties in cognition, adaptive behavior, academic, social, self-help, problem-solving, attention, and memory areas.

Students with autism may have mild to severe difficulties, but usually have serious difficulties with social behavior. Students with more severe autism have difficulties with language, communication, cognitive, attention, memory, and basic skills.

Arrange special classroom procedures for emergency situations for classrooms containing individuals with lower-incidence disabilities. These individuals may miss the usual safety alert systems, tire more easily, have special medical needs, or have mobility needs that require special preparation.

 

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Chapter Activities



Some lower incidence disabilities are temporary; others are permanent or even life threatening.

 

 


1.

Read Chapter 4. Use the Chapter 4 Graphic Organizer to "see" the big ideas in the chapter. Fill in blank sections of the graphic organizer. Add the graphic organizer to your class notebook.

2.

Examine the following World Wide Web links and consider their perspectives based on information from Chapter 4. Print out useful information and add it to your class notebook.

 National Association of the Deaf
http://www.nad.org

 

United Cerebral Palsy Association
http://www.ucpa.org

 

Spina Bifida Association of America
http://www.sbaa.org

 

Muscular Dystrophy Association
http://www.mdausa.org

 

Epilepsy Foundation of America
http://www.efa.org

 

American Diabetes Association
http://www.diabetes.org

 

AIDS organization
http://www.aids.org

 

American Association for Retarded Citizens
http://thearc.org

 

Center for the Study of Autism
http://www.autism.org

 

Autism Society of America
http://www.autism-society.org
 

 

 

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