Copeland Creek Water Quality Project
- Watershed-wide Monitoring - to identify impairments as they arise.
- Copeland Creek Enhancement Project Monitoring - to identify changes caused by the proposed project
- Summer Runoff Monitoring - to identify water sources and quality that create perennial sections of the creek
- Native Fish Habitat Monitoring - to better understand habitat quality for threatened steelhead and native warm water fish
Project Description: Our waterways capture overland flow during storms and water from our gutters and fields. Are there pollutants in Copeland Creek? Where do they come from? What parts of the creek are most compromised and when?
Our interdisciplinary team identified the following topics that the water quality project can address:
Duration: Spring 2012 - ongoing
Type of Educational Activities: Service-learning, independent research, review papers
Project Faculty: Mike Cohen (Biology), Mark Perri (Chemistry), Debora Hammond (Arts & Humanities), Nathan Rank (Biology)
Partners/Funding: Sonoma County Water Agency; NSF Grant "Stepping Up Stem" to SSU School of Science & Technology; SSU Arts & Humanities, Sonoma County Youth Ecology Corps
- BIO 338 Environmental Microbiology and Biotechnology (Mike Cohen) - Spring 2013 - 20 students
- CHEM 125B Honors Chemistry (Mark Perri) - Spring 2013 - 20 students
- LIBS 320B Water Seminar (Deborah Hammond) - Spring 2013, 2014 - 15 students/yr
- LIBS 202 Challenge and Response in the Modern World (Debora Hammond) - Spring 2013, 2014 - 70 students/yr
- SCI 120 A Watershed Year (Jeremy Qualls) - 45 students (3 sections)/yr
- Sonoma County Youth Ecology Corps (Suzanne DeCoursey) - 5 field crew members
- Chemistry Summer Internships (Mark Perri) - 1-2 students/yr
Sampling Locations - Detailed directions to sampling locations
- Headwaters - Osborn Preserve, Lichau Road
- Alluvial Fan - Pressley Road, SSU Bridge
- Valley Reach - SSU Outfall, Santa Alician Gauge, Commerce Blvd
Sampling Schedule - Water samples are taken at sampling locations at times supportive of course schedules. Almost all of the participating courses are taught during the Spring Semester (January to May). Summer sampling is undertaken by restoration crews and chemistry interns. (Ideally sampling for this project would follow Rohnert Park (2009) in including: (a) 1st sample during early wet-weather season following first flush runoff; (b) 2nd sample during a major storm occurring later in the wet season; 3rd sample during dry weather, ideally following a period of 21 days without precipitation).
- Coliform Bacteria, E.coli (Mike Cohen) - IDEXX Colilert®: Standard methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater
- Ions (nitrate, chloride, nitrite, sulfate, fluoride)(Mark Perri) - All samples are analyzed using Dionex Ion Chromatography (IC). A Seven Anion Standard is used to create calibration curves to qualitatively and quantitatively identify species present.
- Pesticides and hydrocarbons (Mark Perri) - Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) combines gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry to identify different substances within aquatic samples. Gas chromatography uses a capillary column to separate the molecules and the mass spectrometer then detects ionized molecules based on their different mass-to-charge ratios. Peaks in the resulting spectra are then compared to signatures of known substances to identify the contaminants. Contaminant concentration can be estimated by comparing peak height to solutions with known concentrations of the contaminant.
- Hand-Held Sensor Measurements (conductivity, dissolved oxygen, pH, temp, turbidity) (Debora Hammond, Nathan Rank) - All field measements are made using pre-calibrated Vernier Probes and interfaces. Vernier probes withe chosen due to relatively low cost and high accuracy ratings. Classes conducting water quality measurements are provided with a Vernier sensor kit, sampling pole and bags, and laminated cards with details of how to use the sensors.
- Benthic Macroinvertebrates (Nathan Rank) - Courses undertaking biological sampling use a simplified version of the SWAMP: Surface Water Ambient Monitoring Program (California Water Boards) protocols. Four students spent 10 minutes undertaking the following sampling effort. A fine mesh D-net was placed on the bottom of the creek. Rocks within 1-2 feet upstream of the dipnet were picked up and any organisms attached to the rocks were gently brushed off into the net. Organisms captured in the net were transferred to a white holding tray for identification. After collection, invertebrates were sorted by morphospecies and placed into new alcohol vials. They were then identified to family using a handbook of stream insects. Students additionally used SWAMP protocols for substrate and land use characterization.
Quality Assurrance and Control (also see data disclaimer)
For Hand-Held Sensors:
- Water Quality Data Sheet - Field classes use the same data sheet for collecting field data. Students are prompted to report any difficulties that they had making the measurement.
- Field Methods for Use of Vernier Probes - A set of laminated methods cards are provided for students using the Vernier sensors in the field. Since calibration of the oxygen sensor must be done each time it is used in the field, calibration directions are included in the field instructions. Directions are also included for collecting water samles to be transported to classes conducting laboratory (bacteria and ion) tests.
- Sensor Accuracy - Vernier sensors and interfaces are used for the collection of field data (conductivity, dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature, turbidity, and flow). These sensors are made for high-school and university course work and are not guaranteed for professional measurements. Each probe comes with specifications on sensor accuracy. Link to Vernier sensor specifications.
- Sensor Calibration Instructions - Calibration, standard reagents needed, calibration frequency, and sensor maintenance (from the manufacturer) for each probe are made available to instructors in a calibration manual.
- Training - For Vernier sensors, the WATERS Coordinator works with faculty or graduate students to share sensor use and calibration protocols. Faculty and graduate students provide oversight for student measurements in the field. For benthic sampling, faculty with expertise is macro-invertebrate identification work with students to collect and identify organisms. For bacteria and ions protocols, faculty familiar with these protocols directly work with students in their classes.
Data: (see data disclaimer)
- Bacteria (.xlsx) 2011-present: E. coli, coliform, total bacteria
- Hand Sampling (.xlsx) 2013-present: temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, turbidity, conductivity (TDS), nitrate, ammonium
- Chromatography and Mass Spectometry (xlsx) 2012-present: pesticides, hydrocarbons, chloride, nitrate, nitrite, sulfate, fluoride
- Habitat at water quality sites (.xlsx) 2013 - present
- Measurements of Organic Pollutants on the SSU Campus. Ben Diamond, Michael Haggmark, and Erin Ballantyne (Advisor: Mark Perri, Chemistry 494 Independent Research). Diamond et al. 2014 (poster pdf; 1.8 Mb); 2014 WATERS abstracts. For project description see Low-Cost Technique to Monitor Organophosphate Pesticides in Copeland Creek
- Establishing Whodunit: Application of molecular markers for fecal source tracking. Dipali Vasadia, Mami Kainuma, and Spring 2014 Biology 338 (Advisor: Michael Cohen, Biology 338 Environmental Microbiology and Biotechnology and Student Internship). Vasadia et al. 2014 (pdf; 13 Mb); 2014 WATERS abstracts. For project description see Development of Microbial Specific Genetic Markers to Track Sources of Fecal Pollution
- Copeland Creek Water Quality Project. Kyle Sprickman (Advisor: Debora Hammond, Liberal Studies 202 Challenge and Response in the Modern World, and 320B Water Seminar). Liberal Arts 2014 (pdf, 5 Mb); 2014 WATERS abstracts
- Annual and spatial comparison of coliform abundance in Copeland Creek. Kimber Richardson, Alexandra Hendricks, and Colleen Dailey. 2013. (Advisor Mike Cohen, Biology 338). Richardson et al. 2013 (pdf, 0.5 Mb) ; 2013 WATERS abstracts
- Water quality in Copeland Creek.Claire Varner, Kyle Sprickman, Michael Bruzzon, Lilia Zacchia. 2013. (Advisor: Debora Hammond, Liberal Studies 202 and 320). Varner et al. 2013 (jpg, 0.1 Mb); 2013 WATERS abstracts
- The impact of Sonoma State University on the water quality of Copeland Creek using ion chromatography. Bella Neufeld. 2013. (Advisor: Mark Perri, Chemistry Senior Thesis). Neufeld 2013 (pdf); 2013 WATERS abstracts
- Method Development for the Monitoring of Organophosphate Pesticides in Copeland Creek and Local water ways via Solid Phase Micro Extraction coupled with Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry. Diamond 2014 Senior Seminar (ppt pdf, 2 Mb). For project description see Low-Cost Technique to Monitor Organophosphate Pesticides in Copeland Creek
- How Drought Affects Water Quality. Cody Lynch (Advisor: Jeremy Qualls, Science 120 A Watershed Year). 2014 WATERS abstracts
- Water Quality Variance in Copeland Creek. Joseph Letosky, Parker Hayes, Kayla Cline, Sam Gordon, Jenna Andrews. (Advisor: Jeremy Qualls, Science 120 A Watershed Year). 2014 WATERS abstracts
Drainage Maps of Copeland Creek Watershed:
- City of Rohnert Park Storm Drain Map (7 Mbytes)
- Copeland Creek Watershed Assessment Figure 4. Copeland Creek Drainage Network (p. 11)
- Flow accumulation map (from Mike Smith GIS analysis)
- City of Rohnert Park GIS Drainage Model: Models flow from the City’s subwatersheds. It doesn’t use catch basins or outfall locations
Previous Water Quality Data from Copeland Creek Watershed
- Sampling Locations: two areas of creek: 3 sites at a headwaters area, and two sites at an alluvial fan area.
- Sampling Dates: monthly from June-September 2005.
- Variables Measured: DO, temperature, ammonia, nitrate, phosphate and pH (using Chemettes kits and Winkler kits: Tables 14 and 15 (p 90); Table 16 (p 94)
City of Rohnert Park - Human Marker/Water Quality Study (2009) - (hardcopy only; see WATERS Coordinator)
- Sampling Locations: 3 sites: intersection with Laguna de Santa Rosa, Santa Alicia Drive, Snyder Lane
- Sampling Dates: Feb 18, Mar 4, and Mar 31, 2009
- Variables Measured: specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, temperature, pH, total coliform, fecal coliform, E. coli, total enterococcus, biological oxygen demand, total phosphorus, dissolved phosphorus, orthophosphate, nitrite as N, nitrate as N, ammonia as NH3, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, total nitrogen as N, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids
First Flush Water Quality Monitoring Program (cited in Copeland Creek Watershed Assessment 2004) -
- Sampling Locations: creek crossing at Country Club and Commerce.
- Sampling Dates: Nov 7, 2002 and Nov 7, 2003: (data in CC Watershed Assessment p. 95).
- Variables Measured: steam flow stage, specific conductivity, pH, temperature, total amonia nitrogen, orthphosphate, ntirate, turbidity, TSS, E. coli, total coliform, daizinon.
North Coast Regional Water Quality Control Board
- With North Coast Regional Water Quality Control Board, SSU sampled outfall behind the main outfall behind the art building in the Spring of 1997 (no impact to water quality found)