CHAPTER 4 Basics OF LIFE

Chapter Outline

  • The Ingredients of Life
  • The Building Blocks
  • Carbohydrates

    Proteins

    Lipids

    Nucleic Acids

  • The Fuel of Life

  • Photosynthesis: Making the Fuel

    Respiration: Burning the Fuel

    Primary Production

    The Importance of Nutrients

  • Living Machinery

  • Cells and Organelles
  • Structurally Simple Cells: Prokaryotes

    Structurally Complex Cells: Eukaryotes

  • Levels of Organization

  • Organization Within the Body

    Interactions Among Individuals

  • Challenges of Life in the Sea

  • Salinity
  • Diffusion and Osmosis

    Regulation of Salt and Water Balance

  • Temperature

    Surface-to-Volume Ratio

  • Perpetuating Life

  • Modes of Reproduction
  • Asexual Reproduction

    Sexual Reproduction

  • Reproductive Strategies

  • The Diversity of Life in the Sea

  • Natural Selection and Adaptation

    Classifying Living Things

  • The Species Concept

    Biological Nomenclature

    Phylogenetics: Reconstructing Evolution

    The Tree of Life

  • Box Reading: From Snack to Servant: How Complex Cells Arose

  • Chapter 4 presents the basic principles of Biology.

    The five fundamental units are:

    The "Tree of Life" diagram shown in Figure 4.24 illustrates the system of classification (and is used as an icon in Chapters 5 to 9 to show the relative position of the groups being discussed).

    A few additional notes: