- Grand theories: The abstract concepts are used as an appraisal of existing ideas.
- Middle range theories: Used to describe, explain or predict.
- Practice theories: These are situational specific and contain few concepts. I would also call these Low-Middle.
Theories can be categorized by purpose (each one builds on the ones preceding them
- Descriptive: Describes aspects of practice, but do not show the interrelationships among the concepts
- Explanatory: Describes the interconnections among theory concepts
- Predictive: Describes causal relationships among concepts
- Prescriptive: Defines activities to reach goals and predicts those outcomes
Nursing epistemology: Nursing knowledge is a combination of empirical science and knowing (conventional wisdom, intuition). These would include: empirics, personal knowledge (a priori), intuitive, somatic, spiritual (metaphysical), esthetics and ethical concepts.
The connection between theory, practice and research: Review the Theory, Practice and Research pages listed on the left.
1. Theory-Practice-Theory: adapt a borrowed theory, apply to nursing practice and "tweak" the theory to make it more applicable to nursing practice. For example: Maslow-Virginia Henderson. Systems/Rogers; Dreyfus model of skill acquisition/Benner
2. Practice-Theory: theory development to provide insight into a phenomenon. Theory that evolves from rigorous research practice theories
3. Research-Theory: Baconian: inductive The aim of science is to establish laws; for this purpose an exhaustive enumeration of instances of phenomena, physiologic theories.
4. Theory-Research-Theory: Test a theory with research and refine based on research results Theory of planned behavior- theory of reasoned action actual control .
5. Theory-Research-Practice: Deductive logic (theory testing) Deductive: general to specific. Test theory: Infection causes > WBC, > temp, malaise. My patient has infection use it by monitoring changes.
6. Practice-Research-Theory: Inductive logic (theory development) Inductive: specific to general. Generate theory. Particular observations are combined into a whole: My patient has > wbc, temp, a wound:My patient has an infection.
How are theories developed? Good question!
- They are based on the discipline's philosophy
- They are based on the experiences of the theorist
- They are based on the theorist's assumptions (informed we hope!) which can be implicit or explicit
- Concepts are developed and their structure and linkages are defined
- Propositions are developed
How are theories tested? Through research!
How are theories used in practice?
- Identify standards of care
- Direct patient care
- Evaluate patient care
- Predict outcomes of care
- Assists nurses in understanding the care provided
Remember the uses are for direct patient care and for the healthcare environment in general!
Read Nieswiadomy: Chapter 7. You may also have other texts that provide an overview of nursing theorists. The WebLink below will be helpful also.
Chapter 7 study guide
Article: Borrowed Theories, Shared Theories, and the Advancement of Nursing Knowledge
Article: Modifying Kolcaba's Comfort Theory as an Institution Approach
There are TWO things you need to do for this week:
- This week in class: Your assigned nursing theory (see below).
- Activity 1: Bring Borrowed Theory examples are down the page).
Check out the theory comparison table
The Nursing Theory Page is helpful
So is this one (some duplication/some not)!
|Theories can be concrete